Flow field energy analysis of dynamic impinging stream reactor based on modal decomposition
ZHANG Jianwei , LI Zhenhong etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230119
[Abstract](0) [FullText HTML](0) [PDF 6459KB](0)
The study investigates the energy distribution patterns within the flow field of a dynamic impact stream reactor through a combination of experimental and theoretical analysis. The flow field inside the dynamic impact stream reactor is measured using TR–PIV (Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry) technology. Various nozzle spacings, different outlet mean velocities, and different outlet velocity differences are examined to understand the flow structure and energy distribution within the reactor. By performing eigenvalue orthogonal decomposition on the two-dimensional velocity field within the dynamic impact stream reactor, different scale quasi-ordered structures within the flow field and energy characteristics under different eigenmodes are extracted. Large-scale coherent structures in the flow field are distributed in the radial jet region and near the wall surface below the two nozzles. The energy of low-order modes in the reactor's flow field initially increases and then decreases as the nozzle spacing increases, with the highest energy proportion observed at a nozzle spacing of L/d = 4. The energy also increases with increasing outlet mean velocity and outlet velocity difference. Under dynamic outlet conditions, the energy proportion in the flow field of the impact stream reactor is higher, and the large-scale coherent structures in the flow field are more pronounced. This significantly enhances momentum exchange within the flow field, contributing to improved mixing efficiency.
Temperature-difference-based heat-flux sensors and their application in hypervelocity low-density wind tunnel
YANG Kai , WANG Hongyu etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230140
[Abstract](6) [FullText HTML](1) [PDF 6202KB](0)
Thin-skin calorimeters, coaxial thermocouples and infrared thermographics have the problems of being sensitive to the noise and high uncertainty in the corresponding measured heat flux densities, though frequently used in hypervelocity low-density wind-tunnel tests, The problems result from the complicated measuring principles and their low sensitivities. Hence, taking the properties of high sensitivity and ease of use into account, atomic-layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensors and small-sized Schmidt-Boelter gauges, two kinds of temperature-difference-based heat-flux sensors, are used to measure the low heat flux in a long duration, and their good performance is confirmed by the experiment conducted in a hypersonic low-density wind tunnel. Meanwhile, considering the fact that the size in diameter is relatively too large and the sensitivity is dependent on the effective length of the sensitive element, the sensitive elements of the ALTP sensor are connected in series by electric films, and the sensitivity of the revised ALTP sensor is multiplied without enlarging the size in diameter, which helps get small-sized ALTP heat-flux sensors in the near future.
A brief review on the numerical studies of the fundamental problems for the shock associated noise of the supersonic jets
ZHANG Shuhai , WU Conghai etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230075
[Abstract](21) [FullText HTML](6) [PDF 14536KB](4)
The flow of the supersonic jets contains shock waves, vortices, turbulence and acoustic waves. The numerical simulation method and the mechanism of the shock associated noise of the supersonic jets have been topics of general interest. This paper contains two parts. Firstly, we briefly review the numerical studies on the fundamental problems of the shock associated noise of the supersonic jets. It includes the numerical methods for the shock associated noise, and the models of the supersonic jets, the axisymmetric and three dimensional supersonic jets. For the numerical method, we introduce the technique to reduce the non-physical oscillation and a criterion to design the smoothness indicator for high order shock capturing schemes. Secondly, we introduce our recent results based on the direct numerical simulations and experi-mental verification, including the localization of the axisymmetric modes, the development of trapped waves and the evolution of the flapping modes.
Experimental study on the anisotropy in von Kármán swirling flow system
WANG Feng , ZHANG Yibao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230159
[Abstract](31) [FullText HTML](9) [PDF 7316KB](3)
The degree of anisotropy in the Von Kármán Swirling (VKS) flow system was experimentally investigated. The three-dimensional velocity near the center of VKS was measured by tomographic PIV and two methods were adopted to calculate the second order Velocity Structure Function (VSF2) in order to study the scale-by-scale anisotropy. It is found that the fluctuation velocity is highly homogeneous. However, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) velocity in the vertical direction is one-third times smaller than that in the horizontal direction, which characterizes the large-scale anisotropy. This large-scale anisotropy has left its fingerprint on the small scales, which is reflected by the observation that the scale-space distribution of VSF2 is isotropic in the horizontal plane while it is not in the vertical plane. Besides, this anisotropy diminishes as scale decreases, consistent with the local isotropy assumption proposed by Kolmogorov. This experimental study provides new insights into turbulent flows.
Research on FADS technology of diamond-nosed aircraft without stagnation pressure
ZHANG Zongyuan , GU Yunsong etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230125
[Abstract](37) [FullText HTML](23) [PDF 9955KB](1)
Limited by equipment such as fire control radars near the nose, modern fighters cannot set pressure ports near the stagnation point, which causes the test accuracy of the conventional flush air data sensing system to greatly decline. For the diamond nose used in the typical fighter, the algorithm and accuracy of FADS (Flush Air Data Sensing) without stagnation pressure are studied. Through subsonic and transonic wind tunnel calibration experiments, the pressure distribution characteristics of the pressure ports were obtained and the FADS technology without stagnation pressure was constructed based on the Kalman filtering algorithm. The algorithm has been improved by importing differential pressure. The improved algorithm is partly decoupled, resulting in improved accuracy with few iterations and low computational complexity. The experimental results show that the algorithm without stagnation pressure can effectively work out air data in external experiment, with an accuracy of 0.33° for angle of attack, 0.30° for angle of sideslip, 0.67% for static pressure, and 0.011 for Mach number.
Study on MHz high-speed PIV technique
LU Xintao , ZHAO Hang etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230144
[Abstract](36) [FullText HTML](13) [PDF 6737KB](8)
Transonic flows have presented an enduring challenge to experimental research due to their intricate and unsteady flow characteristics. This study investigated the megahertz-frequency Particle Image Velocimetry(MHz–PIV)technique to enhance the resolution of small time-scale flows under the transonic flow conditions. During the measurement, five high-speed cameras alternately and quickly captured images of the same measurement area, and thus obtained ultra-high time resolution particle image data. By employing image processing techniques optical distortion correction and identification of the common area were achieved. The application of the ensemble correlation algorithm, coupled with spectral analysis of the compressible turbulent flow field based on the velocity field, contributed to a comprehensive analysis. The experiment validated the high-frequency sampling capability of MHz–PIV, which significantly reduces the technology’s dependence on camera performance. This approach offers a refined measurement technique with high spatiotemporal resolution for transonic experiments.
Effects of Low Temperature and Humidity on Contact Angles of Water Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces
QIU Yue , YANG Yifan etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220085
[Abstract](24) [FullText HTML](11) [PDF 7254KB](0)
The Cassie-Wenzel(C-W) wetting transition on superhydrophobic surfaces has been extensively explored. However, the influence of environmental humidity on wettability transformation of irregular surface formed by film mulch is not sufficiently explored. The static contact angle changes of water droplets induced by different temperature and ambient humidity were studied by ground cold environment test. The results show that low temperature induces the drop contact angle to decrease, and the surface condensation occurs. After the temperature is stabilized, humidity becomes the main factor affecting the change of contact angle The results show that the superhydrophobic surface condenses when the temperature decreases, and humidity becomes the main factor affecting the change of contact angle when the temperature stabilizes. The freezing delay time and contact angle before freezing are affected by different temperature. The effects of temperature and humidity on the contact angle can be quantitatively obtained by low temperature and freezing test of water droplet. The contact angle decreases by 5° ± 1.7° for every 5 °C decrease in temperature. When the temperature is stabilized, the contact angle of water droplets decreases by 2.4° ± 0.7° per minute at 88%RH and by 0.9° ± 0.2° per minute at 45%RH.
Composite drag control and energy flux analysis for wall turbulence
DUAN Pengyu , CHEN Xi
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230126
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](17) [PDF 7695KB](7)
Drag reduction in wall flows is of both fundamental and engineering interest. Here, we review the recent developments in the drag reduction strategy and the underlying mechanism. First, the framework for energy flux analysis of drag control is reviewed, which builds up a quantitative relation between the skin-friction coefficient and the dissipation rate. The framework illustrates how the flux of pumping power and control power is distributed and dissipated by coherent, random, and mean fluid motions, applicable for complex control methods as well. Moreover, a specific large-scale control strategy by spanwise opposed wall-jet forcing is introduced, which reduces near-wall random turbulence intensities by merging velocity streaks together and hence suppressing the generation of streamwise vortices. By injecting control power from coherent motions, the spanwise forcing method achieves a maximum drag reduction rate of approximately 19% in the channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 180. Furthermore, a composite control method combining large-scale control and opposed wall blowing/suction together, yields approximately 33% drag reduction and 32% net power saving at the same Reynolds number, both higher than that of the individual control method. Finally, we show that applying the large-scale control over riblets, the control efficacy is much higher than that of the riblets alone, hence demonstrating the robustness of the large-scale control method.
Effect of rectangular nozzle exit aspect ratioon flow field and acoustic field
YU Shuiwang , DU Yongle etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230063
[Abstract](54) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 10460KB](1)
To investigate the influence of the aspect ratio on the flow field and acoustic field of a rectangular nozzle, study has been conducted using DES/FW–H hybrid algorithm on two different aspect ratios of rectangular supersonic fully expanded jet nozzles. The influence of the aspect ratio on flow dynamics and noise of the jet has been analyzed. Firstly, multiple flow field variables were compared and analyzed to verify the feasibility of numerical simulation methods. Differences were observed in the pressure changes on the inner wall surface near the outlet for different aspect ratios, with the larger aspect ratio exhibiting faster pressure changes. Also, it was found that the velocity decreases more rapidly with distance from the outlet on the short axis of the lip, while on the long axis of the lip, the velocity decreases slowly. Next, relating the aspect ratio of the nozzle exit to the jet noise field, and comparing existing noise experimental data with computed data, it was found that in all angles, the maximum difference between the experimental and computed total sound pressure level was 2.6 dB (AR = 3) and 4 dB (AR = 1.5). Increasing the aspect ratio could reduce the total sound pressure level upstream. Furthermore, changes in the shear layer thickness under different aspect ratios were analyzed, and the impact of these changes on the jet noise was studied. The results reveal that increasing the aspect ratio would increase the shear layer thickness and shift the rapid expansion location of the shear layer and high-frequency noise sources upstream. Finally, the phase velocities of specific frequency noise at the lip of the exit were compared for different aspect ratios, revealing a significant reduction in the phase velocity along the long axis of the exit lip with increasing aspect ratio, which affects the angle of the near-field noise radiation.
A quadrupole correction model to suppress spurious sound with moving permeable integral surfaces
ZHOU Zhiteng , WANG Shizhao
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230072
[Abstract](38) [FullText HTML](20) [PDF 6393KB](2)
Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings (FW–H) equation is the extension of the Lighthill’s acoustic analogy equation for sound prediction with moving boundaries. However, the spurious sound often arises from vortex structures crossing through permeable FW–H surfaces. This work aims to approximate the contribution of the vortex structures to far-field sound using the Lighthill stress tensor flux and subtract the resulting spurious sound. Based on the frequency-domain Lighthill stress tensor quadrupole correction model, a quadrupole correction model is proposed to account for the effect of a moving integral surface on the spurious sound. Based on the frozen flow assumption and far-field approximation of the FW–H equation’s Green’s function, the proposed model incorporates the FW–H surface’s velocity into the integrand of the quadru-pole correction model by solving an algebraic equation of the quadrupole volume integral term. The proposed model is validated by the far-field sound prediction of flows over a circular cylinder and a convecting vortex.
Experimental investigation of the spatial distribution of uniform momentum zones in wall-bounded flow
CHENG Xiaoqi , FAN Ziye etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230132
[Abstract](51) [FullText HTML](29) [PDF 6930KB](7)
Experiments are carried out in a water tunnel to measure the velocity field in the streamwise-wall-normal plane by particle image velocimetry with a large field of view, in order to investigate the spatial distribution of the uniform momentum zones in the turbulent boundary layer. Through calculating the probability density function of the measured streamwise velocity, the temporal and spatial distribution of the uniform momentum zones are achieved. Then the lasting distance and the appearing frequency are analyzed for the uniform momentum zones with different numbers. For different uniform momentum zone numbers, there are apparent differences for both the corresponding lasting distance and appearing frequency. When the number of uniform momentum zones is close to their mean value, the uniform momentum zones can last for long distance along the streamwise direction and have small streamwise separation, appearing more frequently. On the contrary, when the number of uniform momentum zones is far from the mean value, the corresponding uniform momentum zones last for smaller distance along the streamwise direction and have a larger streamwise separation, appearing less frequently.
The linear control characteristic of the multi-wall passive fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle
WANG Yi , GU Yunsong etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230120
[Abstract](52) [FullText HTML](27) [PDF 11047KB](3)
The thrust vectoring technology is the key technology of high-performance aircraft, which can be divided into the mechanical and the fluidic thrust vectoring technology. The fluidic thrust vectoring technology has advantages of simple structure, fast deflection response and low energy consumption, so it has been widely studied. However the problems of jump and nonlinearity of the control law exist in the current rectangular fluidic thrust vectoring nozzles. Meanwhile the maximum deflection angle is small, which seriously limits the engineering application of this technology. A new type of the rectangular multi-wall passive thrust vectoring nozzle is developed in this paper. In order to figure out whether this new nozzle can realize the vector control of the jet with high linearity and larger deflection angle, two control strategies of the multi-section wall under multi-wall passive secondary flow and the variation of the initial passive secondary flow rate are employed. The characteristics of the dynamics and flow field of the jet are studied by means of experiment and numerical simulation. The results show that these control methods improve the linearity of the control law of the force vector angle, and the effective deflection force vector angle is increased. The linearity of the control law increases from 62% to 90.8%, and the maximum deflection force vector angle increases from 18° to 22°. When the initial inlet and outlet area ratio of the passive secondary flow is 1.16, the line-arity is further increased to 94.9%. It is found that there is no obvious separation bubble structure near the wall of the nozzle during jet deflection, which preliminarily explains the principle of the linear continuous control law of the nozzle.
Numerical simulation of mixing and combustion performance of pulsed injection in a kerosene-fueled scramjet
LIU Guoxiong , LI Lang etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230113
[Abstract](54) [FullText HTML](35) [PDF 8667KB](5)
To investigate the impact of gaseous kerosene on the mixing and combustion performance of a scramjet combustor with pulsed injection, the two-dimensional RANS equations are solved using the two-equation kω SST turbulence model. The flow field structure of the scramjet model with the cavity and backward step as the flame stabilizer under the condition of Mach 2.5 inflow, total pressure of 1.75 MPa, and total temperature of 1350 K is investigated. The mixing and combustion performance of kerosene and air under steady injection and pulsed injection are compared and analyzed. The results show that the simulated schlieren pattern is in good agreement with the test, only 0.2 ms earlier than the test, accounting for 2.89% of an oscillation period (6.9 ms). Pulsed injection results in a prolonged existence of the recirculation zone within the combustion chamber cavity, enhancing fuel retention in this region. It is not found that the pulsed injection has a significant contribution to the total pressure loss, while the temperature and pressure distribution of the pulsed injection is uniform without the thermo-dynamic throat.
Development of transient radiation heat flux sensorfor high enthalpy pulse wind tunnel
LIU Jichun , CHANG Yu etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230092
[Abstract](46) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 8301KB](5)
To meet the requirement of radiation heat flux measurement on aerodynamic configurations mounted in hypervelocity and short duration flows in high enthalpy impulse wind tunnels, a transient radiation heat flux sensor was developed. The radiation heat flux sensor was designed based on thin-film sensor, where a radiation absorption layer was fabricated on the thin-film and a radiation transmittable window was added in front of the sensor to insulate the convective heating. The radiation heat flux sensors were tested in laser beams and shock tube flows to examine the response characterisctics, and were tested for radiation heat flux measure-ment at the stagnation point of a re-entry capsule in a hypervelocity flow with the velocity of 11 km/s generated by the High Enthalpy Expansion Tunnel. Experimental results prove the fast response ability of the sensors and showed resonable agreement of measured radiation heat flux with predicted values, verifying the feasibility of the sensor for radiation heat flux measurement in high enthalpy pulse wind tunnels.
Experimental study on the directivity and noise reduction of the blade leading-edge noise using Inverse Method SODIX based on microphone array
LIAN Jianxin , CHEN Weijie etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230020
[Abstract](85) [FullText HTML](60) [PDF 10605KB](7)
Taking the NACA65(12)–10 blade as the object, a linear microphone array based on the SODIX (SOurce DIrectivity modeling in the cross-spectral matriX) method is used to study the leading-edge (LE) noise directivity of the baseline and the effect of the wavy LE on the LE noise directivity. First, a SODIX data processing program was developed, and the program was validated by numerical simulation. The validation results show that the data processing program has a good accuracy with an error less than 0.26 dB. Then, a linear array with 31 microphones is designed to identify the LE noise directivity of the baseline and the wavy LE blade experimentally in a semi-anechoic chamber. Within the measured degree range of 40° – 142°, the directivity of LE noise shows a characteristic of typical dipole sound sources with a peak occurs at 130°. Besides, the higher the frequency is, the more obvious of the ‘lobe’ distribution of the LE noise directivity is. Further analysis shows that the wavy LE with various amplitudes and wavelengths especially with larger amplitudes can reduce LE noise in measured angle ranges especially among 90° – 120°. And the maximum value is 7.71 dB for A30W20.
Experimental measurement and analysis of inertia force and aerodynamic force in flapping motion of flexible wing
LIN Weiteng , ZHU Bowen etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230089
[Abstract](78) [FullText HTML](49) [PDF 9716KB](8)
Inertia force and aerodynamic force are often coupled in flapping motion. In order to study the aerodynamic characteristics of a bat flexible membrane wing in flapping motion, it is necessary to separate the inertia force and the aerodynamic force to obtain the aerodynamic force. By setting up a photographic platform based on multi-vision, images of flexible membrane wings with different properties were captured, and a multi-vision algorithm was used to reconstruct the deformation of the flexible membrane wing, so the inertia force can be calculated from the deformation. A six-axis force sensor was used to obtain the real-time force of the flexible membrane wing, then the aerodynamic force can be obtained by eliminating the inertia force, and the law between the inertia force and the aerodynamic force was analyzed. A standard model verifies that the deformation error of this method is 2.36%. The results show that the highly flexible wing membrane has a significant deformation during the flapping process, which is related to both inertia force and aerodynamic force. And with the increase of the thickness of the wing membrane, the inertia force and the aerodynamic force are increased to different extents.
Study on the morphology and mechanical properties of solid, liquid and gas nanoscopic soft matter in liquid phase
XU Yi , CHENG Yuzhu etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230095
[Abstract](63) [FullText HTML](53) [PDF 6244KB](11)
In liquid environments, nanoscopic soft materials typically adopt a cap-like shape to maintain their stability. Therefore, their morphology characterization and identification remain challenging in the liquid phase. The present study employs Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to achieve high-resolution imaging of subaqueous micro-nano blisters, polymer droplets, and surface bubbles. By analyzing the morphological changes in various scanning forces, the morphological characteristics of these nanoscopic soft materials are investigated. Subsequently, nanoindentation tests are conducted to analyze the interaction between the probe and the solid-liquid-gas interfaces, and their mechanical properties are obtained. The results show that under a scanning force of 0.50 nN, all blisters, droplets, and bubbles exhibited cap-like shapes. Under a higher scanning force (5.0 nN), the blister morphology remained constant, the droplet volume decreased, and the bubble disappeared. Force-distance curves at the vertex under a load of 3.0 nN indicate that all the three experienced elastic deformation. The probe has to overcome greater adhesion force to detach the droplet, while bubbles display a two-stage elastic deformation. Furthermore, due to the influence of anchoring effects, the considered objects exhibit stronger resistance to deformation near the edge of the spherical cap. The modulus of the poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofilm is independent of the applied load during elastic deformation caused by blister and it is estimated to be around 3.38 GPa. The interfacial tension of small-sized PDMS droplets underwater is approximately 37.3 mN/m, while the gas-liquid interfacial tension of surface bubbles is approximately 32.5 mN/m.
Time-evolution characteristics of flash radiation of gasified aluminum in aluminum-aluminum hypervelocity impact
DONG Wenpu , DU Xuefei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230077
[Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](50) [PDF 6670KB](5)
Flash radiation is one of the typical phenomena produced in hypervelocity impacts. The study of the radiation mechanisms and evolution law of the impact flash is important for building the similarity relationship between the different scales and probing the dynamics of the hypervelocity impact. In the low pressure atmosphere, the flash radiation mechanisms in aluminum-aluminum hypervelocity impacts are multiplex. One of the radiation processes standing for tens microsecond duration may result from the ablation of tiny fragments. Analysis of impact experiments shows that the characteristics of the processes are close to with the description of the Taylor point explosion model, but further study of the radiation distribution is still lacking. In this paper, the evolution characteristics of the impact flash produced in hypervelocity impact are discussed by considering the effect of the radiation transfer in the impact products. It is found that there exists a peak structure in the time evolution of the radiation intensity, which presents a proportional law showing that the position of the radiation peak depends on the energy and density of the wave shock. The proportional law can be used to establish the relation between the chamber pressure and the radiation peak time of the shock wave. In addition, this work puts forward an approximate solution of the radiation evolution, which is derived from the radiation transfer theory and shows agreement with the results detected by experiments. The consistent results indicate the tens-microsecond-standing peak appeared in the impact flash is generated by the expansion of the shock wave, and the radiation intensity depends mainly on the expansion area and the dynamical evolution of the states of the gas distributed in the shock wave. It provides a theoretical reference for the research of the evolution law and the phenomena of the hypervelocity impact flash.
Research on anti time-varying disturbance control of wind tunnel flow field
LIU Weijie , LING Zhongwei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230093
[Abstract](71) [FullText HTML](29) [PDF 5422KB](1)
The time-varying disturbance problems are common in wind tunnel flow field control, the most typical of which is the disturbance of Mach number control caused by angle of attack in the transonic continuous sweep angle of attack test. In order to improve the accuracy of flow field control in the presence of time-varying disturbance, a novel feed-forward feedback composite control scheme is innovatively proposed. The feed-forward control is based on phase Lead Correction based Incremental Extend State Observer(LIESO), and the feedback control is based on the incremental Proportional-Integral(PI) control. The research on the transonic continuous sweep angle of attack test in the 1.2 m trans-supersonic wind tunnel is carried out to verify the composite control method. The test results show that: the LIESO + PI composite control method has remarkable effect on time-varying disturbance suppression, and good robustness, good adaptability to different model blockage and test Mach numbers, and has good engineering application value.
Cooling and friction reduction performance and mechanism of supersonic film cooling using hydrogen and hydrocarbon
WEI Jianfei , MI Zhenhao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230114
[Abstract](57) [FullText HTML](24) [PDF 6937KB](4)
The essential difference of the turbulent state in the mixing layer contributes to the totally different behavior of the cooling and wall friction reduction performances of the hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuel films. The turbulent transport processes between the hydrogen film and the mainstream are much weaker than that of the hydrocarbon film making inert hydrogen to be rather superior in cooling and friction reduction applications. However, the film cooling performance severely deteriorates when the hydrogen film burns due to the severe heat release sources presented near the wall. On the other hand, the boundary layer combustion of hydrocarbon film can remarkably improve its original barely satisfactory cooling and friction reduction performance to be comparable to that of the hydrogen film due to the suppression of turbulent transport processes in the mixing layer and presence of heat absorption sources near the wall.
Preliminary experimental study on the crushing length of centrifugal single and double injectors liquid film
KANG Jinxin , TONG Yiheng etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230084
[Abstract](84) [FullText HTML](55) [PDF 8021KB](1)
In order to fit the actual application of engineering and understand the variations of atomization characteristics of the dual injectors and the single injector, an experimental study on the liquid film breakage length of the liquid-centered coaxial centrifugal pure liquid-phase single-injector and dual-injectors under the same working conditions was carried out in this paper. A high-speed camera was used to capture the transient spray images, and the liquid film breakage lengths of the dual injectors under different working conditions were extracted and analyzed in comparison with those of the single injectors. The surface waves of the liquid film were obtained through image processing to analyze the mechanism of the variations between the liquid film breakage lengths of the single injector and dual injectors. The results show that the liquid film breakage length of the dual injectors is smaller than that of the single injector under the same working condition, and the difference between the liquid film breakage lengths of the single injector and dual injectors show a tendency of increasing and consequently decreasing. The wavelength growth rate defined in the paper reflects the degree of instability of the liquid film before breakage, and the growth rate of the wavelength of the liquid film surface wave of the single injector increases with the increase of the mass flow rate of the liquid, while that of the dual injectors shows that the instability of the liquid film before breakage is not only related to the initial working condition, but also related to the distance between the liquid film impact and the action of the perturbation, so that the wavelength growth rate of the double injectors liquid film surface wave increases first and then decreases with the increase of the mass flow rate.
Research on stagnation point heat flux measurement methods of the sharp leading edge model in arc-heated wind tunnel test
ZHU Xinxin , WANG Hui etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230051
[Abstract](77) [FullText HTML](56) [PDF 6835KB](4)
Based on the demand of stagnation point heat flux measurement on the sharp leading edge model in the arc-heated wind tunnel test, a kind of curved null-point calorimeter and the corresponding heat flux measurement methods are developed for a leading edge model with radius R = 2 mm. Radiation heat flux calibration and arc-heated wind tunnel tests are carried out for the leading edge model equipped with 3 curved null-point calorimeters and 2 pressure ports. The results show that the newly developed curved null-point calorimeter can obtain the temperature curve of the typical one-dimensional semi-infinite model. The heat flux curve calculated by the temperature curve is stable and the heat flux values are linear under different states. The correction coefficient should be obtained by heat flux calibration before each null-point calorimeter is used. Heat flux and pressure of the sharp leading edge model are measured in four different flow states of the arc-heated wind tunnel test. In the same flow state, the maximum deviation of heat flux measured by 3 curved null-point calorimeters in the leading edge model is less than 10%, and the maximum deviation of pressure measured by 2 pressure ports is less than 5%. The maximum deviation between the mean value of 3 curved null-point calorimeters and the numerical value is less than 9%, and the maximum deviation between the mean value of 2 pressure ports and the numerical value is less than 8%. It indicates that the newly developed curved null-point calorimeter and heat flux measurement methods have good measurement accuracy and can be used to measure stagnation point heat flux of the leading edge model with radius R = 2 mm.
Progress of research on airfoil trailing edge tonal noiseat low-moderate Reynolds number and its control
LI Yong
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230062
[Abstract](88) [FullText HTML](41) [PDF 7558KB](13)
This paper summarizes the research on the airfoil trailing edge (TE) tonal noise at low-moderate Reynolds number. Also included are the unsolved problems and their prospected research ideas and roads. The acoustic feedback loop and the vortex shedding are considered to be the two main mechanisms for the generation of airfoil TE tones. The former is formed between the boundary layer and the TE and is associated with the ladder-type discrete tones, while the latter contributes to the single-frequency tonal noise due to global instability. The airfoil TE noise is investigated experimentally in the open/closed wind tunnels and numerically through DNS/LES methods. The development of the T–S waves in the boundary layer is calculated using the linear stability theory, and the vortex shedding is analyzed using the concept of absolute/convective instability. Passive control methods, such as the airfoil leading edge or TE serrations, porous material, and morphing surface, are applied to attenuate the airfoil TE tonal noise. Two main active control strategies are the applications of blowing/suction and the plasma technique. Though the airfoil TE tone at low-moderate Reynolds number has been studied for half a century, some issues still need to be answered, and future development is also prospected.
Analysis of aerodynamic noise mechanism and influencing factors at the skirt with grille under the vehicle at 400 km/h
ZHANG Zongfa , XIAO Xinbiao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230065
[Abstract](64) [FullText HTML](40) [PDF 9079KB](4)
The grille located in the lower part of the train body is usually easy to form a grille-cavity structure with the equipment bay’s surface. The problem of flow-acoustic coupling resonance of this structure is more prominent when the train runs at high speed. It is necessary to further analyze the flow-acoustic coupling mechanism of the structure. Therefore, the skirt plate with the grille, which is located in the lower part of the train body and can be simplified to a grilling-cavity structure, is taken as an example. And the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) is used to analyze the grille-cavity structure’s aerodynamic noise generation mechanism, flow field, and sound field. The results show that the shear oscillation at the opening of the grille-cavity structure is more intense when the train is running at 400 km/h, especially near the impact edge of the cavity. From the spatial and frequency domain distribution of the global sound pressure level and the wave number spectrum of the turbulent pressure, it is found that the flow field of the square grille-cavity is always in a transition state of self-excited oscillation and the amplitude of oscillation in the global sound pressure level and wave number domain at different positions is always lower than that of the V-shaped and semi-circular grille-cavity. Considering the effect of the air outlet on the semi-circular grille cavity currently used, it is observed that the evolution of vortex clusters inside the cavity slows down significantly, which directly causes the global sound pressure level near the grille to drop by about 15 dB. It can be considered that the effect of air outlet has a significant effect on the reduction of near-field noise of the skirt plate with the grille.
Study of liquid spreading and particle size distribution during the preparation of aluminum alloy powder by rotary disc atomization
LI Long , PENG Lei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230059
[Abstract](45) [FullText HTML](43) [PDF 9349KB](3)
An experimental setup using high temperature rotating disc centrifugal atomization was developed to study the preparation technology of the aluminum alloy powder for additive manufacturing with high sphericity, high particle size concentration and no satellite powder. The flow spreading pattern of the aluminum liquid was investigated, and four typical regions were found to exist on the surface of the disc, which were named and analyzed. The microstructures of the 1060 and AlSi10Mg powder samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The powder particle size distribution curves for typical experiments were analyzed by fitting a single-peak Extreme model. A shift in the splitting mode caused by a decrease in the flow rate of the aluminum liquid was investigated, which was effective in increasing the fines rate and reducing the median diameter. The effects of three different disk configurations, plane, tapered and curved, on the median diameter were compared. The effect law of the rotational speed and disc diameter on the median diameter of 1060 aluminum powder was analyzed, and a new theoretical formula of the particle size was obtained by regression analysis.
Aeroelastic correction for nonlinear aerodynamic data in wind tunnel tests
SUN Yuchen , CHENG Pan etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20200140
[Abstract](90) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 7021KB](2)
A correction method for model deformation effects in wind tunnel tests is developed based on NASTRAN static aeroelastic analysis integrated with CFD data. Flexible To Rigid Ratio (FTR) of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives for different angles of attack are calculated by NASTRAN with CFD correction, which is used to obtain aerodynamic characteristics of the undeformed model. Corrected aerodynamic characteristics of a high-aspect-ratio wingbody model under different circumstances of Mach number and dynamic pressure suggest that the proposed method largely improves the correction in the nonlinear part of CL and Cm curve. A minor discrepancy exists between corrected data and extrapolated results at different dynamic pressures, which is at most 0.015 for CL and 0.005 for Cm respectively. Moreover, the method is robust enough to gain accurate corrected results under different circumstances and efficient enough for large scale application in aircraft design.
Analysis on the aerodynamic noise of the pantograph of high-speed train at 400 km/h
SUN Shu , ZHANG Wenmin etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230029
[Abstract](66) [FullText HTML](30) [PDF 8070KB](4)
In order to clarify the aerodynamic noise characteristics of the high-speed train pantograph system and its relationship with the flow field, a subdomain model of the full size and a scale model of the pantograph were established, and large eddy simulation, acoustic perturbation equation and FW–H equation were used to predict the flow field and sound field under the condition of rising bow at 400 km/h. Based on the FW–H equation, the sound source distribution was inverted, and the energy distribution of the turbulent pressure and sound pressure in the pantograph base were analyzed using the reduced order model. The results show that with the incoming flow velocity of 400 km/h and the pantograph as the sound source, the total sound pressure level of P2, which is the standard measuring point in the far field can reach 88.1 dB(A), and there are obvious peaks around 283 Hz and 576 Hz. The Strouhal number corresponding to the peak frequency (characteristic length is 41 mm equivalent diameter of the square rod) is 0.10 and 0.21, respectively. The energy ratio of the first two modes of the turbulent pressure and sound pressure in the pantograph base are 4.5% and 3.3%, 40.9% and 14.0%, respectively, with certain symmetry in the distribution. For the pantograph base, in the frequency band below 300 Hz, the pressure level of the full-size model is larger than that of the scale model, and in the frequency band below 1000 Hz, the sound pressure level of the full-size model is larger than that of the scale model. When the whole pantograph is used as the sound source to radiate to the far-field standard point, the measured sound pressure level of the full-size model is larger than that of the scale model at all frequencies.
Development and experimental analysis of circular foil pressure-heat flux gage
ZHU Xinxin , YANG Yuanjian etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230044
[Abstract](94) [FullText HTML](34) [PDF 9428KB](4)
Based on the demand of heat flux measurement in the continuous test of vehicle changing orbit, the circular foil pressure-heat flux gage that also can get pressure is developed on the basis of the traditional Gardon gage. The thermal radiation calibration test, the different plate comparison tests in the arc-heated wind tunnel, and numerical calculation analysis are carried out. The results show that the new circular foil pressure-heat flux gage can simultaneously get heat flux and pressure at the same point of the plate model in the multistate continuous arc-heated wind tunnel test. Repeatability accuracy of heat flux and pressure measurement are about 3.6% and 1.9% respectively. Compared with the slug calorimeter, the heat flux value measured by the circular foil pressure-heat flux gage is lower than 14.7%. There are two main reasons for the discrepancy. On one hand, the gage sensitivity coefficient decreases in the convective measurement environment; on the other hand, the incident heat flux of the gage decreases because the temperature of the constantan foil is relatively high so that a local hot spot is formed. Finally, some suggestions for the use of the new circular foil pressure-heat flux gage and traditional Gardon gage are given.
Experimental study of the mechanism of drag reduction in turbulent boundary layers on the superhydrophobic structured wall with microstructure
LIU Zhaoyang , WANG Xinwei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220016
[Abstract](161) [FullText HTML](75) [PDF 7996KB](16)
The drag reduction mechanism of the wall turbulent boundary layer with superhydrophobic micro-riblets and micro-convex posts is studied experimentally. The instantaneous velocity field in the turbulent boundary layer of the hydrophilic wall, superhydrophobic micro-riblets wall and micro-convex posts wall is measured by high time resolution particle image velocimetry (TRPIV). The frictional shear stress of the three kinds of walls is compared and analyzed. It is found that the superhydrophobic walls achieve drag reduction effect. However, the drag reduction rate of the superhydrophobic micro-riblets wall is higher than that of the superhydrophobic micro-convex posts wall, and the drag reduction rate of the superhydrophobic micro-riblets wall is 13.8%, while the drag reduction rate of the superhydrophobic micro-convex posts wall is 10.2%. Through comparison and analysis on the three kinds of wall corresponding average velocity profile in the turbulent boundary layer, turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress profile, it is found that the fluid indeed has sliding speed in the superhydrophobic wall, and in the area of the same normal height at $15 < {y^ + } < 100$, the streamwise turbulence intensity corresponding to the hydrophilic wall, superhydrophobic micro-riblets and micro-convex posts wall decreases successively. At the same time, in the area of the same normal height at $30 < {y^ + } < 80$,the wall-normal turbulence intensity of the superhydrophobic micro-convex posts, hydrophilic wall and superhydrophobic micro-riblets wall decrease successively. Over the whole wall-normal height, the maximum values of Reynolds shear stress on the hydrophilic wall, superhydrophobic micro-convex posts and micro-riblets wall decrease successively. Based on the conditional sampling and phase averaging of the spanwise vortex identified by the ${\Lambda _{{\text{ci}}}}$criterion, it is found that the amplitude of the fourth quadrant event induced by the spanwise vortex of the superhydrophobic micro-riblets wall weakens nearby at ${y^{\text{ + }}} \approx 63$, which leads to the intensity of its sweep events decreasing, and then the drag reduction is realized. In order to further analyze the turbulent fluctuation energy, the instantaneous fluctuation velocity of the whole turbulent boundary layer is summed in time and over the streamwise-normal space by using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and it is dimensionless to characterize the fluctuation degree of the flow field. The results show that the spanwise slip characteristics of the superhydrophobic micro-convex posts increase the drag and weaken the drag reduction effect caused by the streamwise slip. The streamwise slip characteristics of the superhydrophobic micro-riblets wall can effectively suppress turbulence fluctuation and achieve better drag reduction effects.
Propagation characteristics of dynamic feature in transonic cavity shear layer
ZHOU Fangqi , WANG Xiansheng etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230066
[Abstract](91) [FullText HTML](67) [PDF 6924KB](5)
In the shear layer of the open cavity flow, the vortex interacts with the pre-transmission sound wave, causing self-sustaining oscillation. For a cavity model with a length-to-depth ratio of 7, the dynamic characteristics of the shear layer in the cavity were tested under the incoming flow condition of Mach number 0.9 by the pulsating pressure measurement technology, and the propagation law of the modal noise in the shear layer is revealed by the spectrum analysis and cross-correlation analysis. The results show that the superposition of the monotonically increasing broadband noise and cosine-like modal noise in the shear layer causes the wave-rise characteristics of the overall dynamic of the shear layer. The modal noise propagates in the reverse flow direction, its velocity is also cosine-like, and the change trend is consistent with the modal noise amplitude. Combined with the Rossiter mode estimation theory, it is revealed that the interaction between modal sound waves and vortices of the same frequency produces a standing wave-like phenomenon, resulting in periodic changes in the power spectrum density and propagation velocity of the modal noise along the flow direction.
Experimental investigation of turbulence intensity measurement in continuous transonic wind tunnel
ZHU Bo , CHEN Jiming etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220034
[Abstract](101) [FullText HTML](85) [PDF 7600KB](13)
The constant temperature anemometer is used for turbulence intensity measurement from the entrance of the heat exchanger to the test section in a 0.6 m continuous transonic wind tunnel. Two dimensional hot wire probes were rotated to measure the three dimensional turbulence intensity in the flow field from the entrance of the heat exchanger to the exit of the setting chamber. One dimension hot wire probes were used for turbulence intensity measurement in transonic flow of test section, with the method of continuous varying hot wires over heating ratio, where the maximum testing flow velocity was Ma1.5. Test results show that, the heat exchanger and the setting chamber paly important roles in damping turbulence intensity, each of which could reduce the turbulence intensity by more than 90%; when the screens in the setting chamber are added from 3 to 5 layers, the turbulence intensity of setting chamber could be decreased by 50%, and could be decreased by 17% in the test section; using the continuous varying hot wires over heating ratio method, the fluctuation diagrams and turbulence intensity are acquired in the test section. The fluctuation curve is of the straight line type at Mach number 0.4, and the fluctuation curve is of the hyperbola type at Mach number 0.7, which present the fluctuation characteristics in the flow field. Experiment results are useful for flow turbulence evaluation and optimization in the continuous transonic wind tunnel.
Experimental investigation on growth profiles of microalgae with different flow conditions in photo-bioreactors
ZHANG Ting , FENG Aiguo etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220028
[Abstract](67) [FullText HTML](100) [PDF 7861KB](15)
Well-designed Photo-bioreactors (PBR) support high-efficiency biomass production. Methods: Flow fields of plat-plate PBR are experimental investigated with a time-resolved particle image velocimeter (TR-PIV). Results: Microalgae flow around sets of baffles improves performance of Chlorella vulgaris growth. Conclusion: The PIV-based flow visualization method benefits microalgae PBR designs, implements of high-density cultivations. The PBR structures proposed in this paper is of great supports to design and high productivity of bio-products with high added-values.
Review of slat noise mechanism and control in high-lift devices
WEI Renke , LIU Yu
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230017
[Abstract](217) [FullText HTML](70) [PDF 11932KB](29)
During aircraft landing, the slat of high-lift devices is an important source of airframe aerodynamic noise. In recent decades, a large number of wind tunnel tests on slat noise have been carried out domestically and abroad. A deep understanding has been achieved on the characteristics and mechanisms of slat noise, and many attempts have been made in flow control and noise reduction technologies. Slat noise mainly includes low-frequency broadband noise, low-frequency discrete tonal noise, and high-frequency tonal noise. In this paper, the main research progress of wind tunnel testing on two-dimensional airfoil slat noise is reviewed and analyzed, and the generation mechanisms of the three slat noise components are introduced in detail. There are three main categories of control methods for slat noise. The first is the fairing method represented by the slat cove filler, which removes or limits the generation of recirculation flow and hence significantly reduces noise. The second is applied at the slat cusp to interfere with the formation of coherent structures in the shear layer. From the perspective of engineering feasibility, the third category is to optimize the slat slot and structural parameters or to adopt new configurations with leading edge droop as an example. In summary, in order to achieve efficient noise control technologies, it is necessary to deeply understand the complex phenomena in the shear layer flow of the slat cove, such as the fluid-acoustic coupling and its interference with the slat trailing edge, through advanced testing methods and experimental schemes.
Investigation on error correction method of five-holes probes used in flow field with large velocity gradient
XIE Jinwei , GUO Tao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230009
[Abstract](102) [FullText HTML](67) [PDF 6176KB](13)
In order to explore the distortion characteristics of the five-holes probe under a large gradient flow field (ΔV/V), a data processing method for correcting the measurement error caused by the velocity gradient is established. An investigation based on the five-holes probe principle is employed to reveal the effect of the flow angle and velocity gradient on the measurement error. A correct method is proposed and verified by the experiment. The results show: the measurement error of the velocity value is far less than that of the flow angle and can be ignored in ordinary range (ΔV/V = ± 0.3 in this paper). The measurement error of the flow angle is usually notable. The error is affected by the velocity gradient and flow angle. The results of the experiment confirm that the correction method based on the velocity gradient and flow angle can reduce the angle error effectively.
The aerodynamic heating consistency study between CFD and experiment for air-breathing integrated vehicle
ZHANG Xuhui , WANG Zhaowei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220041
[Abstract](100) [FullText HTML](60) [PDF 7841KB](11)
In order to improve the accuracy of simulation and obtain the aerodynamic heating consistency of the prediction method for the typical integrated design of the aircraft forebody model, experiments were carried out at FD−20a shock tunnel under the condition of Ma = 6, Re = 1.14 × 107~2.98 × 107 m−1, α = 0°~8°. Numerical simulations were applied through the compressible Navier−Stokes equation implemented with the finite volume method, Roe’s flux difference splitting scheme, LU−SGS spatial method and Spalart–Allmaras (SA) turbulence model. Simulation results were compared with the experimental data to validate the prediction methods. Results show that with the increase of the complexity and disturbance intensity, the heat flux consistency decreases. The compression surface flow was dominated by the attached flow and small separation, where relative good consistency was found between the simulation and experimental data with the average difference being about 22.3%. The throat boundary layer was interfered by shock waves, and 43.5% difference was found between the heat flux simulation and experimental data. The heat flux difference in the isolation section increased to 31.8%. When the oblique shock impinged on the subsonic part of the bow shock and three dimensional flow patterns were obvious, the difference of heat flux reached the maximum of around 100% in three dimensional areas. Mesh, simulation methods and unsteady characteristics are concluded as the reasons for heat flux consistency decreasing along the airflow.
Experimental study on influence of incoming total temperature on hypersonic boundary layer transition
LI Qiang , WAN Bingbing etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220081
[Abstract](116) [FullText HTML](84) [PDF 8505KB](15)
Wall-temperature-ratio/temperature is a parameter that needs attention in the study of hypersonic boundary layer transition. The boundary layer transition experiment was carried out in CARDC Φ2 m shock tunnel, the model is a 7° half-angle cone model with the nosetip bluntness of 0.05mm, the Mach number is 9.86 and 9.97, the unit Reynolds number is 8.9 × 106/m and 8.4 × 106/m, and the total temperature is 1332.2 K and 956.6 K, respectively. Under the conditions of approximately the same Mach number, Reynolds number, noise level and wall temperature, the effect of the total temperature of the wind tunnel on the transition of the hypersonic boundary layer is studied. The heat flux sensor is used to measure the transition position and the high frequency fluctuation pressure sensor is used to measure the fluctuation characteristics of the boundary layer. The experimental results are compared with the transition prediction results of the γReθMT model and the linear stability theory results, respectively. The heat flux distribution results of the cone calculated by the transition model are in good agreement with the wind tunnel test results, and the transition positions obtained experimentally and theoretically are basically the same, indicating that the numerical calculation method of the transition model has high reliability. The pressure fluctuation results measured by the PCB sensor and the theoretical analysis results of the linear stability are mutually confirmed, showing the second mode wave spectrum characteristics of the two cases of high and low total temperature under wind tunnel conditions.
Experimental investigation on the flow-induced vibration of a riser subjected to the combination of internal liquid flow and external sheared flow
GAO Yue , ZHU Hongjun etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220033
[Abstract](120) [FullText HTML](65) [PDF 7893KB](12)
Flexible risers which are commonly applied to transport submarine resources have been widely utilized in offshore engineering. The intricate flow-induced vibration (FIV) of flexible risers is easily encountered with the presence of both internal and external flows. Once the riser fatigue failure occurs, it causes serious environmental pollution. In this work, a series of tests were conducted in a recirculating water flume to investigate the dynamic behavior of a flexible catenary riser under the combination of the internal liquid water flow and the external shear current. A non-intrusive high-speed imaging technique was employed to record the vibration displacement varying along the riser span. The reduced velocity and the internal flow velocity ranged from 3.55 to 44.69 and from 0.674 m/s to 1.651 m/s, respectively. The influence of the internal flow velocity on the dynamic response was examined. The experimental results including the spatial-temporal response amplitude and frequency as well as the mode evolution of out-of-plane were analyzed. The results show that the response is enhanced with increasing internal flow velocity except for the mode transition cases. In addition, the existence of the internal flow leads to the earlier occurrence of the mode transition. When the lock-in occurs in the vortex-induced vibration of the flexible riser, the amplitude of the flexible riser is magnified with increasing internal velocity, while the new mode response is not triggered. There is a new mode response occurring in the mode transition cases.
Study of splash characteristics and spreading mechanism of liquid droplets impacting walls at low temperature
LEI Jilin , GOU Yao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220147
[Abstract](133) [FullText HTML](94) [PDF 7310KB](16)
The phenomenon of droplets impacting on the cold wall is one of the key factors leading to the deterioration of aircraft wing icing, wire icing and cold start of internal combustion engine. Droplet splashing and spreading characteristics are the main causes of the above problems. High-speed photography was used to study the splashing and spreading characteristics of n-dodecane droplets striking aluminium plates at different temperatures. The results show that as the wall temperature decreased (20 ℃ to −40 ℃) the droplet fragmentation threshold is significantly reduced, the secondary droplet diameter and number increase significantly, and the spreading speed and maximum spreading distance of the attached liquid film decrease significantly. In this study, a new dimensionless spreading coefficient (βT = (D/D0)/ReT0.07) and a new spreading model (βT = 1.76τ0.5) were constructed for the kinematic characteristics of the fast spreading phase of the liquid film attached to the low temperature wall, considering the effect of wall temperature on the viscous forces. The spreading model not only enables an accurate description of the liquid film spreading process under different insertion conditions and wall temperatures, but also widens the range of application of the model from 0.1 ≤ τ ≤ 1.0 to 0.1 ≤ τ ≤ 1.5, allowing the resulting low temperature spreading model to accurately describe changes in the spreading pattern of the liquid film over a longer period of time.
Application of a calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy in the diagnosis of high-enthalpy flow field
CHEN Wei , WANG Lei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220099
[Abstract](112) [FullText HTML](61) [PDF 8055KB](6)
Parameters of the high-temperature gas in the high-enthalpy flow field arean important basis for analyzing the thermochemical characteristics of the high-enthalpy flow and its interaction mechanism with exothermic materials. However, due to the high temperature of the flow field and severe chemical reaction, the measurement signals of these parameters are difficult to calibrate, which makes quantitative measurement difficult all the time. Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) is a kind of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS), which has stronger anti-interference ability and is more suitable for complex environment application compared with the direct absorption method. A calibration-freed data processing method of WMS has been realized by fitting the measured harmonic signal with the theoretical harmonic signal, and applied in the diagnosis of the high frequency induction plasma flow and thearc-heated flow. The results show that the temperature and electronic density in the plasma flow resolved by the WMS are very close to those measured by the direct TDLAS, and the relative error of the specific enthalpy in the arc-heated flow between the WMS and the energy balance method is about 10%, which indicates that the free-calibrated WMS is reliable and can be used as an effective tool in the quantitative measurement of the high-enthalpy flow.
Investigation on full field three-dimensional flow in a multi-pass channel based on Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV)
DUAN Jingtian , WANG Zirui etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230015
[Abstract](119) [FullText HTML](101) [PDF 9479KB](9)
Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) has the unique advantage of rapidly measuring three-dimensional three-component (3D3C) velocity distributions in complex structures, meanwhile it doesn’t need complex optical systems and tracer particles. MRV has become an important means for the study of full flow field. The full-field 3D velocity distribution in a three-pass serpentine channel was measured successfully. Results indicate that MRV has the ability to accurately resolve the complex 3D flow characteristics in the multi-pass channel. From the full-field 3D velocity distribution, it could be found that the flow near the bends has complex 3D features. The secondary flow is obvious on the cross-sections near the bends, which directs from the center of the channel to the upper and lower end walls. Dean vortices were observed in the right-angle bend, U-shaped bend and their downstream clearly. Flow driven by the Dean vortex directs to the upper and lower end walls, which is believed to be the essential reason for local heat transfer enhancement.
Simulation and experimental study of inlet heating simulator for a turbofan engine
LIU Guoyin , YAN Weiqing etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220141
[Abstract](164) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 8262KB](16)
Since the temperature field conditions of the existing intake heating test device cannot meet the index requirements of a certain engine, the structural design, test scheme, temperature field evaluation method, and steady-state and transition state test scheme of the new intake heating device are carried out to ensure that the engine inlet temperature field meets the requirements. This paper makes a numerical simulation analysis of the temperature field uniformity using four engine inlet conditions and using the circumferential non-uniformity method. The simulation results show that the circumferential non-uniformity of the temperature field ≯1%. At the same time, the combined tests of a turbofan engine and the intake heating device under multiple operating conditions were carried out. The steady-state tests show that the circumferential non-uniformity of the temperature field at the highest engine speed was 0.4395%, and the temperature field distribution was consistent with the simulation results. The results of the transition state test show that the inlet temperature field unevenness is related to the engine inlet temperature change rate, and the inlet temperature regulation method is the key to meet the requirements of temperature field circumferential unevenness under different engine working conditions. The results of simulation analysis and joint test show that the newly designed inlet heating device can meet the requirements of circumferential unevenness of the inlet temperature field in the multi-condition engine test.
Experimental study on the effect of rough surface on aerodynamic characteristics and flow field of low Reynolds number airfoil
DENG Haodong , XIA Tianyu etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230032
[Abstract](157) [FullText HTML](70) [PDF 17705KB](23)
In order to explore the influence of rough surfaces on aerodynamic characteristics and the flow field of the low Reynolds number airfoil and to deeply understand the action mechanism of rough surfaces, the SD8020 airfoil was used for experimental research (Re = 4 × 104). The aerodynamic force of the airfoil was measured in the experiment, and the flow field around the airfoil was observed in detail by using luminescent oil-film, smoke wire flow visualization and hot wire technology. The results show that the lift coefficient of the smooth airfoil has nonlinear characteristics in the range of α = 0°~3°, and the abrupt change of the laminar flow separation bubble structure is the main reason for the nonlinear characteristics of the lift coefficient of the airfoil at low Reynolds number. Too small leading edge roughness (Sa+ = 0.00025) does not have significant influence on the flow field, but appropriate leading edge roughness (Sa+ = 0.0051, 0.013) can delay the separation of boundary layer, accelerate the reattachment of shear layer, and reduce or even eliminate laminar separation bubbles. So it can significantly reduce aerodynamic drag and increase the lift-drag ratio. The lift-drag ratio of the smooth airfoil is increased by 35.7% and 41.4%, respectively. When Sa + =0.013, the nonlinear characteristics of the lift coefficient growth is weakened at a small attack angle and the lift coefficient can increase significantly (e. g. the lift coefficient increases by 219.5% when α=2°). The roughness of the leading edge accelerates the growth of the disturbance (manifested as the growth of high-frequency velocity pulsation and T–S wave), rolls the vorticity of the wall into the flow field faster, and forms the vortex structure earlier. The vortex structure can strengthen the normal convection, improve the resistance of the boundary layer to the adverse pressure gradient, and delay the separation. After the boundary layer separation, the vortex structure plays a leading role in the transition process of the separated shear layer, speeding up the transition of flow to turbulence and flow reattachment in advance.
Comparative analysis between thin-film gauges and ALTP sensors in shock tunnel tests
CHEN Suyu , LIU Jichun etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220036
[Abstract](157) [FullText HTML](58) [PDF 6996KB](7)
In the shock tunnel tests, the main parameter to measure is the heat flux density, and the thin-film resistance gauges (TFRGs) are frequently used. As the uncertainty of the measured heat flux with TFRGs is relatively high resulting from the lack of direct validation method for TFRGs, the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensors are applied in shock tunnel tests for comparison with the TFRGs. ALTP sensors have a fast response time and a good linearity, and it can be used in a long duration to measure low heat flux density, which ensures that they can be easily calibrated with the high-accuracy light-based calibration device, so the transfer calibration method is established to on-line calibrate TFRGs in the shock tunnel tests. The experimental results confirm the stable measured heat flux with the ALTP sensors and the TFRGs in the different shock tunnel tests, and the difference between the two kinds of heat-flux sensors is less than 8%. Based on the discussion on the tracing chains of the transfer method for calibrating heat-flux sensors and the measured heat flux in tests, the comparison results show the potential that the ALTP heat-flux sensors can be used to on-line calibrate TFRGs in shock tunnel tests.
Experimental study on the effect of microscale flow on nanoparticle diffusion in polymer solutions
QU Hengchao , ZHENG Ping etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220048
[Abstract](202) [FullText HTML](69) [PDF 7846KB](7)
The diffusion of nanoparticles in physiological media is very important in the process of life evolution, information transmission, and drug delivery. Physiological media such as mucus, tissue fluid, and cytoplasm not only have complex porous properties, but also often exhibit microscale flows related to life activities. The interaction between flow and diffusion is extremely complex, and is affected by the porous properties of physiological media. In the experiment, the microfluidic technology is used to construct a microscale flow environment of polymer solution, the particle tracking technology is employed to measure the movement of nanoparticles, the movement characteristics of nanoparticles are then characterized based on statistical characteristics, and the effects of the microscale flow on nanoparticle diffusion are analyzed. The results show that the microscale flow has an effect on the diffusion of nanoparticles in the direction of the flow and the direction of vertical flow; the restricted degree of nanoparticle diffusion is weakened in the flow direction, showing the multi-stage characteristics of sub-diffusion, Brownian diffusion to super-diffusion; the diffusion of nanoparticles shows an approximate Brownian characteristic in the direction of vertical flow, but the diffusion coefficient is significantly higher than that of the static case. The analysis reveals that the effect of microscale flow on the nanoparticles diffusion in polymer solution is mainly due to the change of the polymer network structure and dynamics. The research results can provide a certain reference for the interpretation of the transport mechanism of nanoparticles in physiological media, and the design and transport enhancement of nano-drugs.
Experimental investigations on impingement dynamics and freezing behaviors of a supercooled water droplet onto a cold substrate
YANG Zaili , WANG Jingxin etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220051
[Abstract](120) [FullText HTML](74) [PDF 7922KB](15)
The impinging-freezing coupling process of millimeter-sized supercooled water droplets onto a cold substrate is experimentally investigated in this work. The effects of the droplet impact velocity, initial droplet temperature (−10 ℃ to 0 ℃), and substrate temperature on the impingement dynamics and freezing behaviors of the droplet are comprehensively analyzed. The experimental results show that for a constant impact velocity, the maximum spreading diameter factor decreases with the initial droplet temperature, but it is independent of the substrate temperature. A modified universal model is proposed to describe the experimental results of the maximum spreading diameter factor. In addition, the nucleation time is advanced with the decrease of the substrate temperature, resulting in the increase of the final frozen area as the substrate temperature is −24 ℃ to −28 ℃, where ‘Coral’ nucleation appears in the contact line region during the retraction stage. Once the substrate temperature is lower than −28 ℃, ‘Fungus’ nucleation forms in thin liquid film during the spreading stage. Moreover, the freezing morphology is determined by retraction dynamics and solidification. The transition from the pancake to basin morphology is prompted due to the increase of the maximum spreading area.
Vehicle aerodynamic sensing technology based on surface distributed pressure
SUN Rong , LI Linkai etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230008
[Abstract](142) [FullText HTML](56) [PDF 10061KB](16)
In the environment of large crosswind or wind shear, the aircraft, high-speed rail, trucks, ships and other vehicles may rollover, which may cause safety accidents. For the crosswind or wind shear phenomenon, the existing technology mainly studies, monitors and gives early warning from the atmospheric macro environment, and often cannot accurately perceive the random aerodynamic load or sudden flow around the vehicle itself. We take the van truck as the research object, and propose a real-time sensing method of on-board aerodynamic force/moment based on the distributed pressure information on the surface. By measuring the distributed pressure on the body surface, the rolling moment coefficient of the characteristic section is obtained, so as to judge the rolling moment of the truck in the crosswind environment. The wind tunnel test results show that the rolling moment coefficient of the pressure tap section located at 0.15 L of the vehicle body is highly related to the rolling moment coefficient of the whole vehicle model, which can be used as a characteristic section to sense and judge its rolling moment, and we also use multiple section fitting to sense the rolling moment, which is more accurate than single section fitting, but needs to monitor the pressure at more positions of the body surface.
Applicability analysis of Sivells method in nozzle design with high Mach number and low total pressure
LI Zhenqian , SHI Yilei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220045
[Abstract](196) [FullText HTML](92) [PDF 8203KB](33)
At present, the Sivells method is widely used for the design of the inviscid hypersonic axisymmetric nozzle contour. And then, the nozzle contour viscous correction is performed by solving the axisymmetric momentum equation. This design procedure is validated by nozzles in conventional hypersonic wind tunnels and shock wind tunnels, which are operated under high Mach number and high total pressure conditions. Meanwhile, there are few validation studies of this procedure under high Mach number and low total pressure conditions. In this study, the nozzle design procedure based on the Sivells method is used for Mach 6, 8, 10, and 12 nozzle contour design under the low total pressure condition. Furthermore, in order to analyze nozzle flowfields, numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment are carried out. It can be found that, the flowfields in Mach 6 nozzle and Mach 8 nozzle are consistent with expectation and the jet flowfields are so good that are suitable for test. In contrast, there are some over-expanded areas in the flowfields of Mach 10 nozzle and Mach 12 nozzle, which results in higher Mach number than expectation in those areas. The jet flowfield quality of Mach 10 nozzle is better than that of Mach 12 nozzle. It can be concluded that, under the condition of low total pressure, the Sivells method still works well for Mach 6 nozzle and Mach 8 nozzle design. Meanwhile, the method is less effective when applied to the Mach 10 nozzle and Mach 12 nozzle design.
Experimental study and statistical analysis of flow field pulsation of spiked cylinder
WANG Yifan , QIN Qihao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220078
[Abstract](206) [FullText HTML](72) [PDF 7875KB](15)
The cylinder with a pointed spike and the spiked cylinder with aerodome were investigated under the condition of Ma = 2.2 incoming flow using a direct-connected wind tunnel and a high-speed schlieren system. The experimental results were statistically analyzed to investigate the unsteady flow field pulsation of the spiked cylinder under supersonic incoming flow. Based on the transient data, the typical structure and evolution of the flow field were first interpreted. The convergence of the residuals was then used to assess the dependability of the statistical results. Finally, the pulsation characteristics of the flow field were further analyzed in terms of the time-averaged and pulsating flow fields. The results show that there is unsteady pulsation in the spiked cylinder flow field under the condition of the supersonic incoming flow, which is more intense in the case of the cylinder with a pointed spike and attenuated in the case of the spiked cylinder with aerodome, demonstrating the suppression of unsteady pulsation in the flow field by the aerodome.
Infrared thermogram measurement experiment of hypersonic boundary-layer transition of a lifting body
CHEN Jiufen , XU Yang etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220030
[Abstract](220) [FullText HTML](105) [PDF 8806KB](47)
For a lifting body model, the boundary layer transition infrared thermogram measurement experiment was carried out in the conventional hypersonic wind tunnel, and the influence of different unit Reynolds number and Mach number on the lifting body boundary layer transition was studied, which was compared with the calculation results of the eN method. The length of the experimental model is 800 mm, the unit Reynolds number is 0.46×107~3.94×107 m–1, the Mach number is 5~8, and the angle of attack is 0°. The transition position and transition front of the boundary layer on the surface of the model are obtained by the large-area infrared thermogram technology. The analysis of the experimental results shows that there are crossflow instability and the second mode transition in the boundary layer of the lifting body. As the unit Reynolds number increases, the crossflow transition effect increases, the temperature rise on the lower and upper surfaces of the model increases, the transition front moves forward, and the transition area expands; as the Mach number increases, the crossflow transition effect gradually weakens and the transition position moves downstream, and the transition area significantly shrinks back. Moreover, the transition N factor at different Mach numbers and unit Reynolds numbers are relatively close, but the N factors of the upper and lower surfaces are different. The lower surface is about 6, and the upper surface is about 2.5. The high-frequency second mode transition occurs in the side edge at high unit Reynolds numbers.
Experimental study on RP3 aviation kerosene oblique detonation engine
HAN Xin , ZHANG Wenshuo etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220090
[Abstract](1622) [FullText HTML](429) [PDF 9313KB](77)
The oblique detonation engine has great potential application in high flight Mach number airbreathing vehicles because of its higher thermodynamic efficiency and smaller size. The research about the oblique detonation engine is renewed all over the world in recent years. However, all of the oblique detonation experiments are conducted with hydrogen fuel or ethylene. There is no experimental result about the kerosene oblique detonation. In order to examine the application feasibility of kerosene oblique detonation engine, the experimental study on the liquid RP3 aviation kerosene oblique detonation engine is conducted in JF-12 shock tunnel and the test time is about 50ms. The difficult issue for the initiation of kerosene oblique detonation is that the ignition delay time of kerosene-air is too long and the autoignition cannot occur in the combustor. A new forced detonation initiation method is put forth to deal with this key issue. The total temperature of JF-12 shock tunnel is 3800 K and the global equivalence ratio is 0.9, which replicates Mach 9 flight-equivalent condition. The steady-state oblique detonation is obtained successfully during the experiments, which demonstrates the application feasibility of the kerosene oblique detonation engine.
Experimental research on the influence of turbulence intensity on boundary layer transition in Mach 3 supersonic flow
LI Meng , ZHAO Huiyong etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220087
[Abstract](178) [FullText HTML](81) [PDF 9099KB](25)
There is still a shortage of the experimental research of boundary layer transition in compressible flows nowadays due to the difficulty in measuring the turbulence intensity. Aiming at studying the influence of the turbulence intensity on supersonic boundary layer transition, a plate model is tested in a blow-down facility (FL-24y of CARDC) at Mach 3. The turbulence intensity of the flow is changed by adjusting the arrangements in the stabilization section of the wind tunnel, which covers a range from 0.82% to 1.63%. The turbulence intensity is measured by interferometric Rayleigh scattering, while the boundary layer transition is derived by infrared thermography. The CFD simulation of the plate model transition is conducted based on the γ-Reθ transition model. The results show that the transition onset position (Fonset) and transition end position (Flength) obtained by the experiment and the simulation agree well, with the maximum relative error coefficient of 2% in Fonset and of 5% in Flength, which provides support to gain a deeper insight into the boundary layer transition mechanism in supersonic flows.
Study on evaporation heat transfer characteristics of sessile droplets based on temperature measurement of double layer temperature sensitive paint
LI Bingjie , ZHANG Shulei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220132
[Abstract](159) [FullText HTML](85) [PDF 6787KB](12)
As a new non-contact temperature measurement method, temperature sensitive paint has the advantages of low cost and fast response. In this paper, a temperature measurement technology based on double layer temperature sensitive paint was used to study the heat transfer characteristics of sessile droplet evaporation. The temperature distributions at the contact surface between the droplet and the heating substrate and at the back of the substrate were obtained by measuring the temperature with a double-layer temperature sensitive paint. A one-dimensional unsteady inverse heat conduction model was established to obtain the heat flux distribution at the interface between the droplet and the heating substrate. The results show that the droplet vaporization process can be divided into three stages: initial heating stage, convection unit evaporation stage and film evaporation stage. In the initial heating stage, the heat flux increases rapidly. In the convection unit evaporation stage, the heat flux decreases gradually and remains basically unchanged. In the film evaporation stage, the heat flux first increases, and then decreases rapidly as the droplet almost completely evaporates. The reliability of the experimental method is verified by checking the heat quantity of droplet evaporation. The research results in this paper are helpful to broaden the experimental measurement method of heat flux during phase change heat transfer.
Visualization experiment of wave dynamics in pressure oscillation tube
GUO Jiangtao , ZHOU Yihui etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220039
[Abstract](129) [FullText HTML](69) [PDF 18534KB](15)
Gas Wave Refrigerator(GWR) is a kind of equipment with strong adaptability to complex working conditions. It has the advantages of high refrigeration efficiency, and can work with liquid. The pressure oscillation tube is the core part of GWR. A visual flow field measurement platform was designed to study the wave motion inside the pressure oscillation tube. The flow field splices and the schlieren technique are used to obtain the density gradient field in the tube, and the results are compared with the theoretical calculation of the two-dimensional Euler equation. The deviation between the experiment and the simulation is 3.2%. Based on the above method, experiments with different pressure ratios and rotational speeds were carried out. The experimental results show that the shock Mach number can be increased by increasing the pressure ratio or speed. When the pressure ratio increases from 1.5 to 3.0, the intensity of the shock wave and expansion wave increases significantly. When the rotational speed increases from 800 r/min to 2400 r/min, the motion path of the expansion wave system gradually bends towards the nozzle, which prolongs the time of the expansion wave at the nozzle.
Measurement investigation of rotational temperature and vibrational temperature in hypersonic wind tunnel rarefied flow field
CHEN Aiguo , TIAN Ying etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210192
[Abstract](130) [FullText HTML](85) [PDF 7297KB](13)
The inconsistency of rotational temperature and vibrational temperature in the rarefied flow field is a concrete manifestation of thermodynamic non-equilibrium. The non-intrusive measurement method of rotational temperature and vibrational temperature in the rarefied flow field can be measured by the Electron Beam Fluorescence (EBF) technique. The basic principle and measurement method of EBF were introduced in this paper. Experiment was carried out in the M12 and M16 conical nozzle of the Φ0.3m hypersonic low density wind tunnel. The rotational temperature maximum relative uncertainty is 0.26% and the vibrational temperature maximum relative uncertainty is 0.8% from the analysis of repetitive measurement results. The distribution of rotational temperature and vibrational temperature on the exit section of the M12 and M16 conical nozzle reflects the characteristics of expansion flow of the conical nozzle. The measurement results of three states of each nozzle show that with the increase of rareness, the larger the deviation between the vibrational temperature and the rotational temperature is, the more prominent the thermodynamic non-equilibrium phenomenon appears.
Research progress of improving nanofluid fuel performance
GAO Yi , XU Xingxing etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220119
[Abstract](148) [FullText HTML](62) [PDF 7312KB](16)
Nanofluid fuel is a kind of suspension liquid, which is made by adding nanoparticles into the liquid fuel. It has advantages of high energy density and shorter ignition delay, and thus shows the potential of improving the burning characteristics of the fuels. To further improve the performance of nanofluid fuels and explore more effective performance control methods, the progress of research on nanofluid fuels in recent years at home and abroad is briefly reviewed in this work. Researches on the improvement of the stability performance, rheological performance, evaporation performance, ignition performance and combustion performance of nanofluid fuels are introduced, and the corresponding tailoring methods and mechanisms are analyzed. Adding surfactant and surface coating are effective methods to improve the stability of nanoparticles in the fuel. The methods of regulating ignition and combustion performance are based on improving the heat conduction and absorption capacity of droplets and promoting the heat release of metal particles, which mainly include nano-metal particles, nano-metal oxides, and new metastable intermixed composites. The existing problems in current research are summarized. More importantly, it is pointed out that the future study of nanofluid fuels should focus on broadening the boundary of the fuel, exploring new surfactants, and establishing the theoretical framework of ignition and combustion.
Multi-objective optimization method for light-field multi-spectral pyrometer
SUN Linlin , FANG Hua etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20230011
[Abstract](344) [FullText HTML](97) [PDF 5429KB](40)
A light-field multi-spectral pyrometer is designed for two-dimensional, high-temperature measurements. The proposed method is based on an unfocused light-field camera, which can simultaneously record directions and intensities of incident rays. The direction information of rays is substituted by radiation spectrums via placing an array of filters in front of the camera’s main lens, such that the image sensor can simultaneously acquire spectra and intensities of rays. For multi-spectral data processing, how to obtain the accurate target temperature under unknown spectral emissivity is a difficult problem to be solved. A multi-objective optimization method is proposed to obtain the inverse true temperature and spectral emissivity without assuming the emissivity model. In this method, the multi-objective function is established according to the radiation equations. The emissivity constraint conditions are set for the objective function, and the penalty function method is used to solve the optimization problem. The calibration experiment results of the black-body furnace show that the relative error of the light-field multi-spectral pyrometer method is less than 1%, which proves the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and temperature inversion method.
Two-dimensional distribution measurement of direct-connect scramjet combustion flow field based on TDLAS multi-absorption lines
XIA Huihui , ZHANG Shunping etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220103
[Abstract](172) [FullText HTML](96) [PDF 6180KB](16)
Aiming at the demand of two-dimensional distribution high-resolution measurement of temperature and water vapor concentration in non-uniform scramjet combustion chamber expansion section, advanced tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) reconstruction method has been developed. By increasing the number of water vapor absorption lines obtained by scanning the laser wavelength, the number of equations for solving the reconstruction problem correspondingly increased, combining the absorbance equations of all absorption spectra under all laser paths, constructing the optimization objective function with temperature and concentration as unknowns, and using the global optimization simulated annealing algorithm to reconstruct the temperature and water vapor concentration distribution. In the direct-connect scramjet combustion test, the orthogonal optical path layout is adopted, and the square optical mechanical structure with 16 measuring optical paths of 5 horizontal and 11 vertical channels is designed. TDLAS measurement system is assembled, and the time division multiplexed direct absorption detection method is adopted for 5 DFB lasers, with the measurement frequency of 4 kHz. Five water vapor absorption spectral lines (7467.77、7444.36、7185.60、7179.75 and 6807.83 cm) can be obtained at each measured optical path, the system has carried out thermometric validation by using high-temperature furnace on the laboratory, and the temperature measurement deviation is within 2.7%. In the test, the absorption spectrum data synchronously collected under 16 optical paths are processed offline, and the distribution data of temperature field and water vapor partial pressure under various states of ignition, combustion and flameout are obtained. The test results show that TDLAS multi-absorption measurement technology can realize accurate and stable reconstruction, and meet the engineering application requirements of complex combustion flow field diagnosis and bad working conditions.
Experimental study on flow characteristics of pitching hydrofoil via stereo shadowgraph
WEI Jinwu , MEI Xiaohan etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220095
[Abstract](212) [FullText HTML](83) [PDF 8306KB](13)
In order to study the jet flow characteristics caused by the pitching hydrofoil, a three-dimensional shadow imaging system is utilized to measure the turbulent flow field. By comparing the results of particle image velocimetry, two-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry and three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry, it is found that the pure pitch motion of the rigid symmetric NACA0012 airfoil at a fixed position in the static fluid would produce weak jets in two directions, accompanied by the generation of small-scale vortices. The results of velocity statistics show that when the amplitude of the hydrofoil rational angle is large, more obvious vortex structure and velocity change are produced. The study obtained the three-dimensional wake structure generated by the pitching hydrofoil movement, and found that there is also a symmetric vortex structure in the depth direction. The results show that the velocity component in the depth direction generated by the pitching hydrofoil movement can not be ignored under the limited airfoil aspect ratio.
Study on electric and thermal characteristics of CO2 arc heater
OU Dongbin , YANG Guoming etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220065
[Abstract](157) [FullText HTML](129) [PDF 7131KB](5)
On the 300 kW DC axial tube electrode arc heater, the UI characteristics and thermal efficiency of CO2 and air are measured by experiment, and the regression analysis is carried out by using the similarity criterion number. The unified relationship of electric and thermal characteristics that can be applied to the two media is obtained, and compared with similar heaters abroad. The results show that CO2 and air arc heaters have similar electric and thermal characteristics, under the same input parameters (arc current and gas flow); the total pressure of CO2 is 18% lower than that of air, but the arc voltage, enthalpy and thermal efficiency are 5.9%, 6.7% and 10.9% higher respectively; the regression errors of UI characteristics and thermal efficiency are −13.0%~11.4% and −33.0%~34.7% respectively. This relationship plays an important guiding role in the operation and commissioning of the high-power arc heater.
Influence and regulation of magnetic field on wettability of ferrofluid droplet on hydrophobic surface
OUYANG Yi , WEN Mingfu etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220086
[Abstract](309) [FullText HTML](118) [PDF 7437KB](43)
The controllable dynamic behavior of ferrofluid droplets under the magnetic field can be used to realize directional transport of small droplets or bubbles in microfluidic devices, anti-icing, droplet condensation, mineral flotation and other fields. At present, the mechanism, influencing factors and regulation methods of the field-assisted wetting behavior of magnetic fluid on the superhydrophobic surface are not clear. The wetting behavior and droplet shape evolutions of water-based ferrofluid on a hydrophobic surface under an external magnetic field are studied experimentally. Under the vertical magnetic field, the effects of the magnetic induction intensity and ferrofluid droplet size on the droplet wetting behaviors are investigated, and the contact line diameter and contact angle of the droplet are measured experimentally. The experimental results show that the apparent contact angle of the ferrofluid droplets decreases from above 90° to below 90° under the action of the weak magnetic field. Under the magnetic field, the nanomagnetic particles in the magnetic fluid form a chain structure along the direction of the magnetic field line and the droplet contact angle changes. Through a scaling analysis, the theoretical relationship of the magnetic field and the contact angle is established and it successfully predicts our experimental results. The work is valuable for controlling the wetting properties of the ferrofluid droplets on the solid surfaces under the magnetic field.
A brief review on trans/supercritical internal flow and jet
JIANG Guanyu , WEN Haocheng etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220083
[Abstract](281) [FullText HTML](125) [PDF 7495KB](37)
Aviation kerosene is expected to act as the primary coolant of advanced gas turbine engines. In such situations, the aviation kerosene would exist at subcritical conditions near the critical point or even at supercritical conditions. Correspondingly, it is of vital importance to study the nozzle internal flow and jet for the design of engine combustors. This paper focuses on the internal flow characteristics and jet characteristics under trans/supercritical conditions. The review shows that the existing researches of the trans/supercritical internal flow are mainly limited to small-molecular or simple fluids, constant cross-section pipes, and narrow conditional parameters. The location of phase change depends on thermodynamic characteristics, geometric configurations, and injection parameters. The mixing efficiency of the trans/supercritical jet is largely affected by thermodynamic characteristics. However, the research on trans/supercritical internal flow characteristics of hydrocarbon fuel inside constriction nozzle channels and jet characteristics based on relatively complex nozzle configurations remains to be further developed. Accurate thermodynamic models of supercritical aviation kerosene remain to be established. The deformation and breaking mechanism of the jet fluid interface as well as the jet mixing behavior remains to be captured through advanced optical diagnostic methods. The mixing characteristic parameters and their change laws remain to be summarized and described.
1.2 m large-field focusing schlieren technique
XIE Aimin , XING Yanchang etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220047
[Abstract](237) [FullText HTML](157) [PDF 7524KB](38)
In the conventional “Z” structure schlieren technique, due to the limitation of large-size optical element materials and processing technology, the size of the test field is usually less than 1 meter. In order to show the flow field of a large-scale model in a wind tunnel, the focusing schlieren technique is proposed to show the flow field in the 1.2 m test area. According to the imaging principle, the large size Fresnel lens are replaced by a matrix light source. After solving the key technologies such as the engineering design of large-size light source splicing, the development of large-diameter focusing lens and the production of high-definition imaging screen, two sets of focusing schlieren systems with the test field of view of 1.2 m × 1.2 m were established, and the schlieren images of the hypervelocity flow field with high sensitivity were obtained in the wind tunnel. The flow visualization with larger field is expected to be realized through the splicing of larger size light sources.
Research on flow characteristics of underwater passive fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle
FENG Chao , GU Yunsong etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220071
[Abstract](215) [FullText HTML](121) [PDF 10196KB](15)
We designed an underwater passive fluidic thrust vectoring nozzle. It can easily generate pressure difference on both sides of the primary jet to deflect the jet only by controlling the valves of the secondary flow channel. However, the nonlinear features in the control law of the thrust vectoring angle such as “sudden jump” and “hysteresis” limit the further application of this technology. In this research, the flow characteristics of the primary jet in different transverse sections of the nozzle were studied by the dye flow visualization technology and particle image velocimetry technology. We discovered flow structures such as shear layer vortices, trailing edge backflow, and separation bubbles. Three-dimensional flow structures were also observed, including the transverse flow in the near-wall region and the corner flow at the joint of two walls. The study of the interaction law between flow structures provides a physical model basis for solving the nonlinear problems such as jump and hysteresis of the thrust vectoring control law.
Roll-yaw control of flying wing aircraft at a high angle of attack based on jet control
GE Zengran , SHI Zhiwei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220104
[Abstract](158) [FullText HTML](97) [PDF 7105KB](16)
The complex flow field structure and the interaction between vortex structures make the flying wing configuration aircraft prone to transverse uncommanded motion at a high angle of attack. To suppress the uncommanded motion, two sets of jet actuators are arranged on the vehicle using two existing active jet control techniques, the control effect of the actuators is verified through wind tunnel force measurement experiments, and the mutual coupling relationship between the two sets of jet actuators is clarified. A virtual flight experiment is conducted in the wind tunnel to capture the uncommanded motion of the flying wing configuration aircraft in the transverse direction, and two methods, PID and deep reinforcement learning, are applied to suppress the uncommanded motion in this kind of highly coupled and nonlinear problem. The wind tunnel experiments show that the deep reinforcement learning method is more effective in controlling the highly coupled and nonlinear problem, and the trained intelligent model can effectively suppress the transverse uncommanded motion of the flying wing configuration aircraft model.
Research on the double-inlet test method in low speed wind tunnel
TANG Jianping , SHANG Yinhui etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220059
[Abstract](213) [FullText HTML](90) [PDF 13166KB](25)
In order to meet the requirement of the double-inlet test in the 4 m magnitude low speed wind tunnel, a test method of the double-inlet test in the 4 m × 3 m low speed wind tunnel of LSAI of CARDC was proposed. According to the method, a model is supported by one pole, and each inlet mass flow is simulated and controlled by an ejector with a digital pressure regulating valves system. In this method, the range of AOA is −10°~90°, the range of AOS is −45°~45°, the simulating maximum of the double-inlet mass flow is 2.9 kg/s and 1.4 kg/s. To validate the method, a double-inlet test was completed in the low speed wind tunnel. The test results show: the model is less affected by pipeline aerodynamics. The independent model and ejector support mechanism meets various model support requirements. Double inlets mass flow simulation and control are completely independent, which meets the requirement of studying interactions for double inlets.
Experimental investigation on anti-icing mechanism and characteristics of superhydrophobic electrothermal coupled surface
LIU Xinle , LI Wenfeng etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220062
[Abstract](317) [FullText HTML](124) [PDF 9559KB](11)
As a novel anti-icing technology, superhydrophobic electrothermal coupled surface anti-icing possesses an excel-lent anti-icing efficiency with low energy consumption. Based on the water droplet impact behaviors and the wetting characteristics of the superhydrophobic surface, a prediction model of the heat flow density of superhydrophobic electrothermal coupled surface anti-icing is developed according to the thermal balance theory of the icing surface. The experimental analysis of the superhydrophobic electrothermal coupled surface anti-icing is carried out in a low-speed icing wind tunnel. The results show that the difference between the theoretical anti-icing heat flux and the experimental results is less than 6%, which verifies the prediction model. The analysis of the experimental results and energy consumption shows that the superhydrophobic electrothermal coupled surface anti-icing effectively reduces the energy consumption compared with the electrothermal method. With the freestream velocity of 10 m/s, liquid water content of 1 g/m3, mean volume diameter of 65 μm, and temperature of −15 ℃, the superhydrophobic coating can effectively prevent the formation of backwater due to its wetting property. For dry and wet surface anti-icing, the superhydrophobic electrothermal coupled surface anti-icing method reduces the energy consumption by about 43% and 33% respectively compared with the electrothermal method.
PLIF investigation on effects of chamber aspect ratio on flow and mixing in cross-shaped mixers
YANG Huan , ZHANG Wei etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220038
[Abstract](176) [FullText HTML](71) [PDF 7176KB](15)
Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) was used to study flow and mixing characteristics in cross-shaped mixers with four chamber aspect ratios rr=0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) at 10<Re<500. Results show that, there are four flow regimes in the mixers with different depths, including the segregated flow, steady engulfment flow, pulsation flow and unsteady engulfment flow. For the steady engulfment flow, the flow field is dominated by three co-rotating vortices for r<1.0, but the center and satellite vortices rotate in opposite directions for r≥1.0. For the pulsation flow, the center vortex shrinks and expands periodically, and the fluid oscillates throughout the chamber for r>1.0. For r=1.0 and 0.5, the shedding of vortex rings emerges downstream. For the unsteady engulfment flow, periodical vortex merging and breakup is observed for r=1.0. For r=0.5, vortex breakup is invisible, and instead, the center vortex merges with a satellite vortex periodically. For r>1.0, the center vortex experiences growth, deformation, and breakup processes. Mixing in cross-shaped mixers was evaluated by the time-averaged intensity of segregation (IOS), and the mixing mechanism is revealed. An increase in chamber aspect ratios decreases the critical Reynolds number for the engulfment flow and pulsation flow, which causes the mixing enhancement in the chamber at low Re.
Ice cloud parameter identification method in icing wind tunnel based on multimodal fusion
XIE Teng , XIONG Hao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220077
[Abstract](177) [FullText HTML](116) [PDF 7957KB](16)
The cloud field calibration of icing wind tunnels usually has the disadvantage of high instrument dependence. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for identifying the parameters of cloud fields in icing wind tunnels based on multi-modal fusion. This method takes the icing image of the test model together with the parameters such as the angle of attack, air velocity, air temperature, and icing duration of the model as input, extracts and fuses the two characteristic parameters, and takes the liquid water content (LWC) and the average volume diameter of water droplets (MVD) as the output to train the neural network model. And then the rapid identification of icing cloud parameters is realized. In order to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, the paper takes NACA0012 airfoil icing as the research object, develops the cloud field identification program of the icing wind tunnel, analyzes the influence of the fusion proportion, and obtains the best network model suitable for ice parameter identification. On this basis, simulation and experimental evaluation are carried out. The full scale error of the proposed method for LWC and MVD is less than 12%, which has high identification accuracy and good generalization performance, and can provide an important supplement for the identification of cloud fields in the icing wind tunnel.
Experiment of aerodynamic performance of axial compressor at low Reynolds number condition
LEI Pengfei , ZHOU Enmin etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220026
[Abstract](191) [FullText HTML](102) [PDF 6746KB](10)
Aerodynamic performances of the axial compressor of the 0.6 m continuous transonic wind tunnel are tested under various pressure conditions, and the Reynolds number effects are studied experimentally. The lowest total pressure of the compressor inlet is about 3 kPa, and the corresponding Reynolds number is approximately 5×104. Test results show that the Reynolds number effects are significant when as Reynolds number is below the critical value, which is 5×105 in the compressor design. Compared to the large Reynolds number condition, the pressure ratio under the low Reynolds number condition reduces rapidly, while the surge margin changes slightly. The mechanical loss of the shaft becomes the major loss of the compressor as the operation pressure drops, and has a significant influence on the compressor efficiency. Additionally, the correlations of the pressure ratio and efficiency with Reynolds number, obtained by data analysis, can offer a useful reference for design and numerical simulation of the axial compressor under the at low Reynolds number condition.
Crossing shock waves/transitional boundary layers interactions in the double vertical wedges configuration
YI Miaorong , ZHANG Ruoling etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220050
[Abstract](359) [FullText HTML](187) [PDF 7850KB](22)
Study on crossing shock waves/transitional boundary layer interaction in the double vertical wedges configuration was carried out using wind tunnel tests and numerical calculations. The wind tunnel tests were carried out at Φ 600 mm pulse combustion wind tunnel. The Mach number of the free stream condition is 3.0, and the unit Reynolds number is 2.1×106 m−1. The schlieren images, wall pressure and wall heat fluxes were obtained during the tests. The results show that because of the adverse pressure gradient caused by the crossing shock waves, the separation of the laminar boundary layer was captured near the shock waves intersection point. And the transition from laminar to turbulent occurred rapidly in the interaction region. After installation of vertex generator devices or roughness devices, the boundary layer transition position moved to the upstream of the interaction region, the separation was effectively inhibited. And the heat fluxes in the interaction region declined obviously. The peak value of heat fluxe was reduced by more than 25%. The shock wave structures and wall pressure distributions obtained from tests and simulations agreed well, while the prediction heat fluxes were much larger than the test results. The comparison between the calculated results of the transition model and the turbulence model shows that the obviously larger turbulence viscosity is the main reason why RANS methods over-predict the heat fluxes in the unseparated interaction region.
Improvement, performance test and evaluation for Schmidt–Boelter gage
ZHU Tao , YANG Kai etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220029
[Abstract](323) [FullText HTML](165) [PDF 6712KB](37)
A kind of the small size Schmidt–Boelter gage was improved for measuring dynamic heat flux in the continuous variable attack angle test in the conventional hypersonic wind tunnel. The Schmidt–Boelter gage improved was statically calibrated and dynamically tested by the heat flux calibration devices. The test results show that the sensitivity coefficient is 57.67 μV·kW−1·m2, the response time is 27 ms, the cut-off frequency is 26 Hz and the gage range coverage is 1–130 kW/m2. Then the quantitative relation between the continuous variable attack angle velocity and the maximum test error was established based on the feature response time constant. And referring to the heat flux measured in the step variable attack angle test, the maximum velocity of the continuous variable attack angle supported by the gage was evaluated within a certain margin of error.
Mechanism study of free-surface polygons formation in rotating fluids
LI Weiyi , WANG Tao etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220074
[Abstract](192) [FullText HTML](97) [PDF 7871KB](14)
In order to study the formation mechanism of polygon phenomenon in rotating fluid, a test set-up of rotating cylinder which can produce rotating fluid was designed. Experiments on rotating fluid for different rotational frequency, liquid heights and radiuses of cylinder were performed. Based on experimental results, a composite wave theoretical model of the intersection point between the free surface of fluid and the bottom of the container was established according to the wave equation and ignoring the specific movement inside the fluid. On this basis, the theoretical model was verified by experiments, and the rotation state on the experimental phenomenon was further studied. Based on the experimental data and previous work, this paper made empirical formula fitting to the data, and found that the fitting effect of blackbody radiation model is the best. The main conclusions are shown below: 1)The viscous action caused by the relative motion between the rotating fluid and the wall causes the free surface of the fluid to form a polygon, which is related to the rotation frequency, the radius of the container, the height of the liquid surface, and the density and viscosity of the fluid, which can be shown by the phase change of the wave. 2)The radial motion of the intersection point between the free surface of the fluid and the bottom of the container can be regarded as the result of the interaction between the gravity pressure field, the centrifugal field and the reflected wave of the vessel wall and the viscous force of the vessel wall, and the radial wave equation can be approximately described by simple harmonic motion. after the parameters of the wave equation satisfy certain constraints, the free surface profile can be obtained by near Fourier transform projection. 3)For a single influence factor, the number of polygonal edges on the free surface of the rotating fluid is positively related to the rotation frequency and negatively related to the height of the liquid surface. The larger the radius of the cylinder is, the easier it is to form polygons. 4)For more influencing factors, the angle number of polygons on the free surface of rotating fluid is mainly related to the two dimensionless quantities of R/H and 1/Ek. With the increase of 1/Ek, the number of angles increases, but the range of adjacent transition boundaries decreases gradually. In the experiment, the more the number of corners, the more unstable the polygon. The disturbance caused by a slight change in rotation frequency will change the number of angles. In the experiment, there is a R/H value in the range of [2.4, 2.5], which makes polygons form most easily, and the 1/Ek range of adjacent transition boundaries is also the largest. 5)When R/H∈[2.0, 4.0], the relationship between the angle number of the rotating fluid and 1/Ek accords with the blackbody radiation model curve, which indicates that the hypothesis of the fluid complex wave may be related to the harmonic oscillator hypothesis of the blackbody radiation. When R/H>4, the constraint effect of the wall is weakened, and the blackbody radiation model can only be used for qualitative prediction. The phenomenon is explored from the theoretical point of view, and the empirical formula is fitted from the experimental point of view. The results can be further applied to theoretical research to determine the physical mechanism of the phenomenon.
Research on the dynamic derivatives test technology of 4.5 m × 3.5 m low speed wind tunnel
CHEN Hao , BU Chen etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210131
[Abstract](227) [FullText HTML](97) [PDF 7519KB](26)
The dynamic derivatives are the a necessary parameters in the process of analyzing the stability of the aircraft and designing the control law, in order to meet the demand for obtaining high-precision dynamic derivatives data for large-scale aircraft. Aerodynamics Research Institute of Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) developed a dynamic derivatives test system with five kinds of oscillations in the 4.5 m × 3.5 m low-speed wind tunnel. The test system uses servo hydraulic swing motor and servo hydraulic cylinder as the driving components of the motion, and directly generates arbitrary waveform motion with the control of the servo valve. The driving mode of the system has the characteristics of small movement transmission gap, high movement control precision, and high automation. The scale of the test model is up to 2.5 m, with the wind speed v =30~60 m/s, the angle of attack α= −36°~36°, and the sideslip angle β= −40°~40°. The verification tests of the dynamic standard model and a wing-body model were carried out, and the test results show that the dynamic derivatives data obtained by the test system is reasonable, the accuracy of the repeatability test data is within 3%, and the test system can provide high-quality dynamic derivatives data for large-scale aircraft.
Research on the position control of double-pass schlieren component based on visual feedback
FANG Bihong , LI Ming etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220068
[Abstract](179) [FullText HTML](99) [PDF 8409KB](7)
The traditional mechanical method of debugging the double-pass schlieren system exhibits the problems that the fine positioning of the working position of the spherical mirror mechanism cannot be ensured, and the optical paths cannot be completely coincided after passing through the flow field twice in the experimental application in the hypersonic low density wind tunnel. Here, a novel double-pass schlieren system based on visual feedback was developed. The system via absolute encoder instruction control the AC servo motor to adjust the position of the spherical mirror mechanism. Moreover, the pitch and left-right deflection of the spherical mirror can be adjusted by the schlieren image quality evaluation results provided by the machine vision system(visual information feedback). The position control system of double-pass schlieren parts based on visual feedback realizes the automatic positioning closed-loop control of the double-pass schlieren spherical mirror mechanism, and ensures that the light paths overlap as much as possible after passing through the flow field twice to eliminate ghosting during imaging of the model flow field(the definition of the flow field image is improved by 2.2 times compared with that obtained by the traditional method).
Research of the continuous scan test method for inlet in low wind tunnel
XU Binbin , LIU Tingshen etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220032
[Abstract](157) [FullText HTML](137) [PDF 6901KB](18)
The continuous scan test method for the inlet of airplane was studied in the FL–13 wind tunnel of CARDC. The test methods and procedures were proposed and the test data processing methods were also provided. Inlet tests were performed in the FL–13 wind tunnel to compare the conventional test method with the continuous scan test method. The test results with the continuous scan test method have a good consistency with the conventional test method, which verifies the availability and feasibility of the continuous scan test method for the inlet in the low speed wind tunnel. The research results show that the continuous scan test method can raise the tests efficiency and acquire more test data for the inlet test in the wind tunnel.
Optimization of total enthalpy measurement method based on the total temperature probe
ZHU Xinxin , LONG Yongsheng etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210149
[Abstract](274) [FullText HTML](118) [PDF 6978KB](25)
A kind of total temperature probe with Iridium Rhodium Iridium thermocouple is developed for improving the total enthalpy measurement accuracy. The size parameters of each component are optimized based on the fluid-thermal coupling model of the probe. The reheating rate of the probe is not less than 0.9 after optimization. The calculation and test results show that the temperature of the thermocouple node rises slowly as the temperature of the thermocouple tail and the shielding case rises. This fact results in the temperature of thermocouple node changing according to the measurement time period. So the measurement time period of the total temperature value should be regulated and the total temperature value must be calibrated. Therefore, a comparison calibration method is proposed, in which the total temperature probe used in the supersonic flow field can be traced to the standard calibration device in the subsonic flow field by an arc chamber total probe developed. Finally, the total enthalpy measurement test based on the total temperature probe is carried out in the arc heated wind tunnel. And the uncertainty of the total enthalpy measurement is calculated according to the uncertainty evaluation method based on the precision limit and deviation limit. The test results show that the total temperature probe has a high total enthalpy measurement accuracy. The repeatability precision is about 3% and the uncertainty is 6.4% in this test.
Study on interaction between wing tip vortex and flat tail tip vortex
ZHANG Zeyu , LI Dong etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210116
[Abstract](175) [FullText HTML](95) [PDF 9730KB](11)
The development of the wingtip vortex is an important factor for the flight safety and airport efficiency of the aircraft landing on the runway. The near-field characteristics of the wingtip vortex mainly determine the vorticity of the vortex in the landing phase. In this paper, a simplified model of A320 is used as the object to observe the near-field configuration of the wingtip vortex in a low-speed tunnel of 1 m × 1 m. It is found that the horizontal tail vortex rotates around the wingtip vortex, and the rotational angular velocity in different flow stations is different. By comparing the simulation results, it is found that the rotational angular velocity of the horizontal tail vortex around the wingtip vortex is basically consistent with the experimental results, indicating that the development of the wake vortex under different Reynolds numbers has certain similarity in the characteristics of the rotational angular velocity between two vortices.
Flash infrared thermal wave detection of Ice surface edge
GOU Yi , LI Qingying etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220017
[Abstract](197) [FullText HTML](147) [PDF 7607KB](11)
Ice accretion detection is an important means to ensure flight safety and an important issue in the field of aircraft anti-icing. In this paper, the method of identifying the boundary between the ice surface and the interior is discussed by using the infrared thermal wave detection technology. With a flash infrared thermal wave detection system established, regular ice accretion samples and ice accretion samples with internal boundary were made, the ice accretion detection experiments were carried out, and the data of the infrared thermal wave sequence were collected. In addition, the traditional algorithm based on the first-order differential operator and the second-order differential operator was exploited for processing the ice edge. A new boundary recognition method was proposed as well, which combined the gauss-Pierre-Simon Laplace pyramid algorithm and the area filtering algorithm. Then, the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to identify the boundary of the ice accretion surface was discussed and compared. The experiments and the image data processing methods show that the traditional algorithm can successfully recognize the outer boundary of ice accretion, but can not accurately recognize the internal boundary of ice accretion. The new fusion algorithm can effectively recognize the ice edge and the internal boundary, but the image noise is higher than that of the traditional algorithm. It can be concluded that the new fusion algorithm has some advantages in the detection of the irregular icing surface, and it is expected to provide a new research idea for icing detection in the field of aircraft anti-icing.
Wind tunnel force test of fairing separation in hypersonic and high dynamic pressure situation
ZHONG Jun , LIN Jingzhou etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210194
[Abstract](359) [FullText HTML](193) [PDF 9052KB](36)
For the problem of the monolithic fairing separating from a hypersonic test demonstrator in a high dynamic situation, the reverse-thrust jets simulation method and wind tunnel force test model design have been developed, to meet the requirements of simulating the jets interaction effect and separation distance influence in the hypersonic wind tunnel. The fairing’s aerodynamic characteristics, including the jets interaction effect and the separation distance influence, were obtained by the strain balance in circumstances where the Mach number of the free-stream was 5 and the dynamic pressure was 33 kPa. The study indicates that the jets interaction effect dominates fairing’s aerodynamic characteristics in the separation process. The maximum coefficients’ variation of the normal force, axial force and pitching moment are 44.5%, 32.4% and 198.6% respectively. The pressure center moves forward obviously, making the fairing with designed static stability presents un-stability features in the minus attack angles. The influence of the separation distance on fairing’s aerodynamic characteristics becomes weaker as the separation distance increases. Using a small positive angle as the initial separation attack angle is helpful for the fairing maintaining a stable attitude, benefitting separation security during the separation process.
Simulation and fabrication of bionic sharkskin composite micro-nano wind resistance reduction structure
XU Zheng , LIU Ri etc.
 doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220002
[Abstract](838) [FullText HTML](253) [PDF 9375KB](57)
The combination of bionics and drag reduction technology has opened up an important research direction in the field of drag reduction, and has made a significant breakthrough. For better implementation to reduce the wind resistance effect, this paper studies the composite micro-nano drag reduction structure, according to the principle of bionics, through CFD simulation combined with the laser micro-nano fabrication technology. A combined model of drag reduction structure wad established. The flight vehicle air sensor head surface with bionic sharkskin composite micro-nano structures was manufactured by laser interfernce scanning on the basis of the bionic sharkskin scale structures, to further improve the drag reduction performance. Through the parallel simulation and wind tunnel test, the drag reduction mechanism was theoretically analyzed, and the composite structures were manufactured with a drag reduction rate of up to 10.3%.
2023, 37(6).
Abstract(51) PDF(19)
Experimental study on high frame rate characteristics of dynamic flow field of jet in crossflow
WANG Zhen , WANG Yayao et al.
2023, 37(6): 1-14. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210077
Abstract(488) HTML(184) PDF(81)
Despite the decisive influence of various vortex structures of a jet in crossflow on the jet trajectory and scalar mixing, there are few studies related to the high-frequency dynamic characteristics of shear-layer vortexes during transportation. This paper focuses on the high-frequency flow field characteristic, the scalar concentration distribution and the formation and collapse process of the turbulent microstructure of the jet in crossflow with different nozzle diameters and velocity ratios using 40 kHz Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 20 kHz Acetone Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (Acetone PLIF). The experimental measurements of the velocity and scalar field show that: increasing the velocity ratio promotes the expansion of the circulation zone behind the jet; in the near field of the jet trajectory, power law fitted velocity distribution and shear-layer vortex trajectory shows an exponentially decrease of the jet velocity, the shear-layer vortex strength and vortex motion frequency also show a downward trend, with the frequency of the shear-layer vortex on the windward side slightly lower than that on the leeward side; as the jet velocity increases, the frequency of the shear-layer vortex increases gradually, but the Strouhal number decreases.
Experimental study on the effect of two-stage radial spacing on flow field and atomization in LDI staged combustor
CAI Yanqing , YANG Xiaoli et al.
2023, 37(6): 15-24. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220082
Abstract(71) HTML(23) PDF(12)
The radial spacings of the primary and pilot staged swirler is an important parameter for the lean direct injection combustor. In this paper, the particle image velocimetry technology, Mie scattering technology and particle size measurement technology were used to study the cold flow and spray characteristics under three different radial spacings of the primary and pilot stage. The experimental results show that, under normal temperature and pressure, with the increase of two-stage radial spacing, the central reflux area changes from narrower in front and wider in back to the same width in front and back, the backflow zone between the two stages keeps increasing, the fuel cone angle of the pilot stage is less affected, the main stage jet deflects gradually from the main stage to the pilot stage, and the main fuel crushing effect continues to deteriorate. When the radial spacing of the two-stage is 20 mm, the atomization effect of the main fuel is the best, and the atomization effect of the secondary fuel is also good.
A bi-weighted-POD and its application on wind pressure field
ZHANG Hao , YANG Xiongwei et al.
2023, 37(6): 25-33. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210146
Abstract(240) HTML(260) PDF(20)
Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is a reduced order modeling (ROM) method based on 2nd-order statics, which simplifies the investigated wind-pressure field in a new coordinate system formed by a set of orthonormal basis. This paper suggests a method of bi-weighted POD (which weights POD by area and at the same time by root-mean-square), and applies this method to the modal reduction of pressure field around buildings. Firstly, we introduce the POD expansion in a mean-square method, which demonstrates that POD is the optimal choice of ROM in the mean-square sense. Furthermore, we modify the original POD by the bi-weighting-method to improve its capacity of identifying coherent structures with lower energy in pressure field. For the last part, the validity of bi-weighted POD is roughly examined by a case study which applies the method to the pressure field of a 5∶1 rectangular cylinder. It turns out that the modified POD method improves the ROM accuracy at the area associated with lower energy in a significant way. In the meantime, a wind-pressure field ROM constructed by bi-weighted POD captures vital information provided by the original wind-pressure field and is spatially accuracy-consistent.
Evolution of high-speed cavity flow based on PIV technology
WU Jifei , ZHOU Fangqi et al.
2023, 37(6): 34-41. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210144
Abstract(201) HTML(101) PDF(25)
In cavity structure, complex flows and high-intensity noises appear under the high-speed condition, seriously affecting the aerodynamic characteristics and structural safety of the aircraft. Through the methods of the particle image velocimetry technology and dynamic pressure measurement, the cavity with a length-depth ratio of 3 to 10 is experimentally investigated in the range of Mach number 0.4 to 0.8. The influences of the length-depth ratio and Mach number on the flow field structure in the cavity are emphatically analyzed, and the correlations between the noise intensity and the flow velocity are revealed. The results show that: as the length-depth ratio increases, the thickness of the shear layer in the cavity increases rapidly and expands into the cavity, leading the impact position on the cavity to move down from the back wall to the bottom, and causing the flow type in the cavity to change from open to closed. The increase of the Mach number inhibits the shear layer from expanding into the cavity and induces the main recirculation vortex to move back and the flow type to be open. The amplitude of the overall sound pressure level is positively correlated with the flow velocity in the back of the cavity.
Droplet spreading on an oblique surface
LU Jie , LI Yalei et al.
2023, 37(6): 42-50. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220012
Abstract(371) HTML(128) PDF(39)
Droplet spreading on a surface is ubiquitous in a variety of applications including aerospace, industry, and agriculture. Majority of these impacts are oblique, while previous studies focused on orthogonal impacts. Oblique impacts cannot be understood directly by previous theories and/or models. Evolution of film formation following a droplet impacting an oblique surface is investigated experimentally. Evolution of the film shape is obtained under various inclination angles and Weber numbers. Based on a new theory of droplet spreading on oblique surfaces, evolution of the film shape is analyzed. It is found that the film shape at small inclination angles can be predicted reasonably, but the error between the predicted maximum lamella width along the inclination direction and the experimental data is relatively big at large inclination angles since the length of the upstream lamella is assumed as a constant in the theory. Modifications of the theory including more detailed analysis of the length of the upstream lamella lead to an analytical model which permits the theoretical determination of the maximum lamella shape. It is shown that the error between the predicted results and the experimental results can be reduced from 61.8% by the previous theory to 3.2%.
Pressure fluctuation experiments of hypersonic boundary-layer on a 7-degree half-angle sharp cone
CHEN Jiufen , XU Yang et al.
2023, 37(6): 51-60. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210054
Abstract(224) HTML(83) PDF(33)
In a conventional hypersonic wind-tunnel, pressure fluctuations of the boundary layer on a 7-degree half-angle sharp cone are measured by surface sensors and are analyzed by the linear stability theory. The influences of unit Reynolds numbers and Mach number on the stability and transition position of the boundary layer are studied. The length of the test model is 800 mm and the radius of the head is 0.05 mm. Test unit Reynolds numbers range from 0.49 × 10 7 m–1 to 2.45 × 107 m–1. Test Mach numbers range from 5 to 8. The angle of attack is 0°. The transition position and the energy spectrum distribution of the disturbance wave in the boundary layer are obtained by the quantitative infrared thermography and high frequency surface pressure fluctuation measurement techniques. The frequency and growth rate of the most unstable wave are analyzed by using the linear stability theory. The experimental results show that the fluctuating pressure signal with obvious characteristics of the unstable wave spectrum can be measured in the transition region. The frequency of the pressure fluctuation is close to that of the second mode instability analyzed by the linear stability theory, and the amplitude variation trend is also similar to that of the theoretical analysis. With the increase of the unit Reynolds number, the instability appears earlier, the dominant frequency is increased, and the transition onset moves forward. The unstable wave in the boundary layer contains the first and second modes. When the free-stream Mach number is equal to 5, the transition is caused by the first mode, and when the Mach number is above 6, the transition is attributed to the second mode.
Experimental study on characteristic calibration of separated exhaust system
LI Qiufeng , LI Mi et al.
2023, 37(6): 61-69. doi: 10.11729/syltlx20220056
Abstract(185) HTML(75) PDF(18)
In flight testing, the aeroengine flight thrust is indirectly obtained by the gas generator method. In order to improve the calculation accuracy of the flight thrust, it is necessary to accurately obtain the characteristics of the exhaust system. The laboratory calibration test and numerical simulation research were carried out by using the large bypass ratio separated exhaust system scale model. The results show that: the core nozzle characteristics obtained by the two methods are consistent, and the values are close. When the maximum core nozzle pressure ratio is 1.44, the deviations of the mass flow and the thrust are 0.73% and 0.18%, respectively; the characteristics of the separated exhaust system obtained by the two methods have the same trend and close values. When the max bypass nozzle pressure ratio equals 1.46, the deviations of the mass flow and the thrust are 0.64% and 0.18%, respectively; when the physical model and geometric model of the large bypass ratio separated exhaust system are reasonably simplified, the characteristic deviations of the separated exhaust system obtained by the two methods are in good agreement.
Practices and challenges on PIV technology in high speed complex flows
Liu Hong, Chen Fang, Li Xiaojie, Zheng Zhonghua, Xiao Baoguo
2016, 30(1): 28-42.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20150069
[Abstract](439) [PDF 6594KB](77)
Experimental investigation on the aerodynamics of tunnel-passing for high speed train with a moving model rig
Song Junhao, Guo Dilong, Yang Guowei, Yang Qiansuo
2017, 31(5): 39-45.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20170002
[Abstract](297) [FullText HTML](162) [PDF 10066KB](9)
Effects of end plates on aerodynamic force of rectangular prisms in wind tunnel test
Zheng Yunfei, Liu Qingkuan, Ma Wenyong, Liu Xiaobing
2017, 31(3): 38-45.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20170015
[Abstract](579) [FullText HTML](242) [PDF 1175KB](22)
Advances influidic thrust vectoring technique research
Xiao Zhongyun, Jiang Xiong, Mou Bin, Chen Zuobin
2017, 31(4): 8-15.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20160207
[Abstract](516) [FullText HTML](224) [PDF 5274KB](46)
Experimental study on Reynolds number effect on aerodynamic pressure and forces of cylinder
Liu Qingkuan, Shao Qi, Zheng Yunfei, Li Conghui, Ma Wenyong, Liu Xiaobing
2016, 30(4): 7-13.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20150112
[Abstract](522) [FullText HTML](181) [PDF 10428KB](20)
Investigation of several fundamental combustion problems in rocket-based combined-cycle engines
He Guoqiang, Qin Fei, Wei Xianggeng, Cao Donggang, Huang Zhiwei, Liu Bing
2016, 30(1): 1-14,27.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20150159
[Abstract](521) [PDF 6603KB](30)
Research progress of aerodynamic thermal environment test and measurement technology
Zhu Guangsheng, Nie Chunsheng, Cao Zhanwei, Yuan Ye
2019, 33(2): 1-10.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20180137
[Abstract](513) [FullText HTML](257) [PDF 13536KB](87)
Research advances in passive techniques for combustion diagnostics based on analysis of spontaneous emission radiation
LOU Chun, ZHANG Ludong, PU Yang, ZHANG Zhongnong, LI Zhicong, CHEN Pengfei
2021, 35(1): 1-17.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20200063
[Abstract](810) [FullText HTML](349) [PDF 19316KB](83)
Review of research on the receptivity of hypersonic boundary layer
Jiang Xianyang, Li Cunbiao
2017, 31(2): 1-11.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20160129
[Abstract](768) [FullText HTML](262) [PDF 7434KB](93)
PIV measurement and numerical simulation of Taylor-Couette flow
Feng Junjie, Mao Yuhong, Ye Qiang, Liu Renhong, Chang Qing
2016, 30(2): 67-74.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20150091
[Abstract](589) [PDF 5952KB](38)
采用粒子成像速度场仪(PIV)和数值模拟(CFD)对Taylor-Couette 流场进行测量,获得各转速下涡流场信息。将同等条件下PIV测量结果与数值模拟结果相联系,对比分析不同旋转雷诺数范围内涡流场中不同径线和中轴线上各向速度的变化特征。结果表明,各种特征存在一定的转速分段范围:在2~7r/min(Re为100~350)时,各向速度特征为层流涡特性,在7~40r/min(Re为350~2000)时,各向速度特征为波状涡特性,在40~60r/min (Re为2000~3000)时,各向速度特征为调制波状涡特性,当转速大于60r/min(Re大于3000)时,各向速度特征为湍流涡特性。根据不同角度获得的各向速度特征对应的内筒转速、旋转雷诺数与流场涡形态的关系,明确分析出特定几何条件下,泰勒涡发生形态转变的旋转雷诺数,以便于深入探究泰勒涡流场的特性,定量分析涡运动形态特征。
A review on flow field velocimetry based on high-speed schlieren/shadowgraph systems
ZHU Haijun, WANG Qian, MEI Xiaohan, WU Yu, ZHAO Changying
2022, 36(2): 49-73.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210110
[Abstract](4034) [FullText HTML](1238) [PDF 8779KB](1238)
The 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-Dimensional (3D) velocimetry based on schlieren/shadowgraph methods are reviewed in this article. The main content includes the basic optical setups and principles of schlieren and shadowgraph systems, as well as the velocimetry algorithms. For 2D measurement, there are mainly two types of velocimetry algorithms: one is cross-correlation algorithm adopted by PIV, while the other is the optical flow method. The basic formulas, advantages and limitations are introduced comparatively. A recent developed schlieren motion algorithm can provide high accuracy and dense estimation, which is promising and applicable in a wide range of applications. The 3D reconstruction and particle tracking algorithms highly rely on the systems. In this review, three different setups are introduced, including tomographic shadowgraphy, two-view collimated light path shadowgraphy and two-view converging path shadowgraphy. The two-view systems are more concise in setup, requiring less equipment, which are advantageous for high-speed measurements. The 3D particle tracking algorithms of two-view systems are introduced, while the main focus is placed on the image space-based tracking algorithms and the spatial-temporal tracking methods. The latter introduces the temporal predictions into the stereo matching process. The particle reconstruction and tracking correctness in dense particle situations is improved significantly by using the strongly coupled spatial and temporal constraints for optimisation. Its performance is superior to several artificial intelligence methods. The progress of the velocimetry algorithms, together with the imaging advantages of short exposure and high-frequency framing rate, has promoted schlieren/shadowgraph from conventional flow visualization to advanced velocimetry techniques, which can play a role for experimental study in a wide range of complex turbulent and transient flow conditions.
Recent advances in background oriented Schlieren and its applications
2022, 36(2): 30-48.   doi: 10.11729/syltlx20210173
[Abstract](3237) [FullText HTML](1562) [PDF 7889KB](1562)
Background oriented Schlieren (BOS) has appeared near 2000 as a variant of the classical schlieren technique. It is a new non-intrusive optical diagnostic technique for measuring the refractive index of complex flows quantitatively. Compared to knife-edge and rainbow Schlieren, BOS is advantageous in terms of optical alignment, systematic calibration, and the dimension of the field of view. The principle and the essential system parameters of BOS are introduced in detail. An overview of recent advances in the BOS technology is presented according to the typical sequence of setting up a BOS system. Finally, recent applications of BOS in super/hypersonic flows, combustion, and plasma flow environments are also introduced.
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